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Unformatted text preview: The Science ō Nutrition: Study Questions Synopsis : New discoveries in the field ō nutrition are derived in large part from applying the Scientific Method to an area ō inquiry. This lecture defines & describes the Scientific Method as well as another source ō information—Anecdotal Evidence. A range ō experiment designs are then examined for their strengths & weaknesses. The concepts ō Generalizability & Control are defined & applied to how we come to evaluate outcomes. Textbook readings: Chapter 1 I. Process ō scientific discovery a. Anecdotal evidence (testimonial) b. Scientific method (systematic exploration) What is the purpose ō science? Science helps us understand how nature works. Science is a formal system that helps us discover knowledge. Science provides more reliable information than some other methods. Anecdotal evidence What is anecdotal evidence? ANECDOTAL EVIDENCE :- evidence ō individual nature w/o rigorous examination- a report ō one person’s experience- everyday alternative to scientific discovery What are pitfalls ō anecdotes? They are not highly reliable/valid. There are problems w/ taking one person’s experience & generalizing that to another due to individual differences ( e.g. metabolic, genetic, geographic) & other factors ( e.g. placebo effect, causes, side effects). The Barnum Effect is the tendency for people to accept very general/vague characterizations ō themselves & take them to be accurate. Unfortunately, personal experience may be biased/misleading. How else might you go about learning the truth in the matter? To learn the truth in the matter, we must systematize our study/reports ō people. We must apply the scientific method. Scientific Method What is the scientific method? What are the stages involved? The scientific method is a more systematic, formal look at experience that does not rely on a single personal experience. 1) Ask a question (w/c usu. comes from anecdotal evidence). 2) Formulate a hypothesis (yes/no/true/false question → testable form). 3) Conduct experiment to test hypothesis. 4) Collect data & evaluate results to confirm/reject hypothesis. 5) Reformulate hypothesis, etc. * HYPOTHESIS : untested working assumption that serves as the starting point ō scientific investigation II. Experimental design a. Group types (experimental, control)- EXPERIMENTAL GROUP : ( a.k.a. treatment group) in experiment, the group that receives whatever treatment is being studied- CONTROL GROUP : in experiment, the group receiving no treatment, used as a comparison for the experimental group b. Study types (observation, intervention) Experimental Design What is the experimental group? What is the control group? Which receives treatment?...
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- Spring '08
- researcher, Anecdotal evidence, Experimental Group, Registered Dietitian