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NS 132 SQ 3 - Balanced Diet Study Questions Synopsis This...

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Balanced Diet: Study Questions Synopsis : This lecture continues the process ō meeting the nutrients w/c began in Lecture 1. Topics discussed here include what nutrients are & how their deficiency, adequacy, & toxicity are measured. Then several tools that help dieticians (& everyone else) to establish a balanced, nutritionally appropriate diet will be examined including: RDAs, US Dietary Recommendations & Dietary Guidelines (w/ emphasis on the latest version w/c was issued in early 2005), the Food Guide Pyramid (also newly revised & re-issued in 2005) & the Food Label. Textbook readings : Chapter 2 I. Defining nutrient & nutrient requirements What is a nutrient? Nutrient is an essential & specific chemical compound (cpd.) that the body (1) needs & (2) cannot make . essential : (in reference to nutrient) both (1) necessary for life & (2) cannot be synthesized by body Name the nutrients. macronutrients (g): protein, carbohydrates (CHO), lipid/fat micronutrients (mg): vitamins, minerals ( kcals) water : H 2 O ( kcals) What are roles ō nutrients in biology? 1. Structure : cell (water) → cell membranes (lipid/fat) → tissue/muscle/organs (protein) → bone/teeth (minerals; e.g. Ca+) 2. Energy : kcal (unit) - Carbohydrates : 4 kcal / g - Protein : 4 kcal / g - Lipid : 9 kcal / g (concentrated, rich source ō calories) - Alcohol : 7 kcal / g - Vitamins & Minerals : 0 kcal / g - Deficiency in Vitamins & Minerals = no energy 3. Metabolism Regulation : Enzymes (protein catalysts) facilitate chemical reactions in body ( e.g. protein synthesis). 4. Fluid Balance : water (H 2 O in/out), minerals (↓ sodium Na + , ↑ potassium K + , chloride Cl - ), protein 5. Acid/Base Balance (pH): Minerals Name some non-nutrients (not essential to life). Some non-nutrients are alcohol & phytochemicals/phytonutrients ( e.g. antioxidants). ( also cholesterol, fiber, mineral fluoride) Nutrient Requirements What is nutrient deficiency? nutrient deficiency : intake ō particular nutrient that is insufficient to ensure physiological functioning; function declines What do we mean by nutrient adequacy?
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nutrient adequacy : intake ō particular nutrient that ensures the optimal/highest level ō physiological functioning; range ō optimal intake What is nutrient toxicity? nutrient toxicity : intake ō particular nutrient beyond what is needed to meet physiological needs, & high enough to actually impair physiological functioning; usu. from supplements How are these three concepts/states related? As nutrient intake declines from optimal range (deficiency) , so does physiological functioning. As nutrient intake goes above optimal range (toxicity) , physiological functioning also declines (depending on nutrient) . Otherwise, sufficient nutrient intake (adequacy) ensures the optimal level ō physiological performance. Goal : Optimize, not maximize, nutrient intake (nutrient density: nutrient content ~ calories ) . nutrient intake bell curve : fatality – deficiency (marginal) – adequacy (68%) – toxicity (marginal) – fatality How is nutrient toxicity most likely to occur?
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