NS 132 SQ 4 - Physiology Digestion: Study Questions...

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Unformatted text preview: Physiology Digestion: Study Questions Synopsis : All aspects the human digestive process are addressed, from initial nutrient intake to the final stages absorption & elimination. In the study human anatomy, visual & three-dimensional renderings are ideal. So in addition to the audio lecture, overheads & text outline below, review the streaming video on digestion, w/c is located under Content, near the link to this page. Textbook readings: Chapter 3 gastro-intestinal (GI) system ( a.k.a. gut ): digestive system & its accessory organs 4 Processes Digestion : 1. motility : process moving food through the gut; peristalsis & segmentation (produces gut noises) 2. secretion : synthesis & release substances by cells in response to stimuli; moisten, lubricate, & digest food ( e.g. hormones, digestive enzymes, sweat) 3. digestion : chemical & mechanical breakdown foods & complex nutrient molecules into simpler components (for absorption) a. mechanically : chewing, churning b. chemically : hydrochloric acid (HCl), bile, enzymes 4. absorption : movement nutrients from intestinal lumen (interior gut) into mucosal cells ( gut lining) Absorption Why is fat absorbed differently from other food molecules? Water soluble nutrients pass through mucosal cells into bloodstream. The blood is water-based, so it cannot carry fat soluble nutrients ( e.g. lipids & some vitamins). These pass into the lymphatic system . chemical difference fat & water : Fat cannot dissolve in water. 2 Pathways for Nutrient Molecules: mucosal cells water soluble nutrients (protein, carbohydrates) bloodstream mucosal cells lipid/fat soluble nutrients lymphatic system liver Peristalsis What is peristalsis? Peristalsis :- rhythmic contraction (longitudinal/length-wise) circular muscles surrounding the gut to facilitate forward movement chyme (food mass)- rhythmic contraction bands muscle ringing the digestive tract that moves food forward through the GI tract- takes place mostly in small & large intestines What would happen if peristalsis came to a halt? Would digestion be possible w/ o it? If peristalsis came to a halt, then there is no movement in the gut & digestion would stall. One cannot swallow against gravity. Food is there, but there is no process. Digestion I. Mouth a. Chewing b. Saliva Mouth What function does chewing serve? What does saliva do? Is it worth chewing your food well? Chewing : starts mechanical breakdown food into smaller particles while mixing w/ digestive juices/secretions ( e.g. saliva) to begin chemical digestion starch (longer chew sweeter taste) ; 1 st stage digestion Saliva : digestive juices that moistens/lubricates food so it is easier to swallow; contains amylase, w/c is an enzyme that breaks down amylose (primary form starch) , & lipase Yes, it is worth chewing food well because non-chewing delays digestion....
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2008 for the course NUTRI SCI 132 taught by Professor Anderson during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin.

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NS 132 SQ 4 - Physiology Digestion: Study Questions...

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