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NS 132 SQ 5 - Carbohydrate(CHO Study Questions Synopsis We...

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Carbohydrate (CHO): Study Questions Synopsis : We begin w/ the chemical structure ō carbohydrates (also known as CHO) & their prevalence in plants. Terms used to classify CHO are defined. How humans digest CHO, the role ō fiber in that process & what we mean by glycemic effect & glycemic index are also explained. Proper blood sugar regulation is essential to good health. We'll find out why. Disorders ō blood sugar regulation - diabetes & hypoglycemia - will be examined. You will learn where the sugars in our diet come from, how they are processed, & the difference bet. naturally-occurring sugars & added sugars & the diff. ways in w/c we metabolize them. The recommended amts. ō CHO are addressed. Finally, the infamous "low-carb" diet will be evaluated, applying what we have learned about human nutrition thus far. Textbook readings : Chapter 4 carbohydrate : one ō the macronutrients, composed ō carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen I. Overview a. Chemical formula: CnH2nOn b. Produced by photosynthesis What is the general formula for CHO? general formula for CHO : CnH2nOn (where 6 ≤ n ≤ thousands) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + sunlight – chlorophyll → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6H 2 O photosynthesis equation : - carbon dioxide + water + sunlight = glucose + water - store solar energy in chemical bonds ō glucose What process produces CHO? What are the starting materials? The process ō photosynthesis produces CHO. photosynthesis : chemical reaction in w/c plants capture sun’s energy & store it as carbohydrate The starting materials are green plants using chlorophyll (as catalyst) through photosynthesis. Glucose is produced by green plants using photosynthesis. In what foods do CHO occur? CHO occurs in foods ō plant origin: - high : bread, cereal, rice, pasta, vegetables, & fruits - medium : milk, yogurt, cheese, fats, oils, & sweets - low : meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, & nuts II. Classification (“-ose” = sugar) a. Complexity / # ō subunits (simple complex) b. Monosaccharides : (simple sugar, single units, no digestion) 1. glucose (energy source preferred by brain ) 2. fructose 3. galactose (only existence as part ō lactose) c. Disaccharides : (simple sugar) 1. sucrose = glucose + fructose 2. lactose = glucose + galactose 3. maltose = glucose + glucose d. Polysaccharides : 1. oligosaccharides ( e.g. raffinose, stachyose) 2. starches (digestible polysaccharide) : amylose & amylopectin 3. glycogen
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4. dietary fibers (indigestible polysaccharide) : insoluble vs. soluble in water Classification (based on CHO complexity → how body handles CHO) sugar : simplest form ō carbohydrate from w/c other carbohydrates are made Based on number ō subunits What is a simple sugar? simple sugar : simplest carbohydrate, including both mono- & disaccharides (quickly digested) What is a complex carbohydrate? complex carbohydrate ( a.k.a. polysaccharide ) : carbohydrate made ō polymers ō simple sugars; includes starch & fiber - digested/absorbed into bloodstream more slowly - modest effect in blood sugar/glucose levels Monosaccharides (“one sugar”) glucose, fructose, galactose → monosaccharide (small enough to be absorbed) What is a monosaccharide?
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