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NS 132 SQ 7 - Lipids Study Questions Synopsis This lecture...

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Lipids: Study Questions Synopsis : This lecture defines & describes the role ō lipids in human nutrition. Beginning at the cellular level, we progress to the 3 major types ō lipids & their function in the body. Next, we discuss how lipids are absorbed & transported w/in the body. Finally, we conclude w/ practical dietetic information about the amount & type ō fats to include in your diet. Textbook readings: Chapter 5 I. Overview a. Definition b. Not soluble in water Definition What are lipids? lipids : soluble in organic solvents ( e.g. ether, hexane, chloroform), but insoluble water - defined by inability to dissolve in water - absorbed in lymphatic sys. - ( organic : complex chem. containing carbon in its structure; often formed in biological process) Fatty acid structure What is the basic structure ō FAs? The basic structure ō FAs (common in nutrition) is long chains ō 4-22 carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms. The omega end consists ō methyl group (- CH 3 ) & alpha end consists ō carboxyl group (-COOH). To differentiate FAs, we count from the omega end ( i.e. omega-3 FA is named for 3 rd carbon from methyl group. fatty acid : lipid formed ō chain ō carbon atoms, saturated by hydrogen atoms to varying degs. w/ methyl group on one end & carboxyl group on other methyl : chem. group –CH 3 carboxyl : chem. group –COOH II. Valence a. # ō chemical bonds that can be made w/ other atoms [atoms & their bonds ] b. Sharing ō electrons more energy stable c. Saturated = all single bonds [a saturated fatty acid ] d. Unsaturated = at least one if not more than one double bond [an unsaturated fatty acid ] III. 3 major types ō LIPIDS: Fatty Acids & Triglycerides, Phospholipids, & Sterols (ring structure) Fatty Acids [ 3 fatty acids ] a. Saturated fatty acids or SFA (linear) b. Monosaturated fatty acid or MUFA c. Polyunsaturated fatty acid or PUFA d. Shape [ FA composition ō common food fats ] [ hydrogenaton process ] [ how hydrogenation makes fats more saturated ]
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Triglycerides (TG) a. 3 fatty acids & 1 glycerol [ triglyceride diagram ] b. 98% ō fats in diet are in form ō TGs c. Usu. same 3 fatty acids attached to the glycerol backbone Phospholipids a. TG w/ one FA replaced by a phosphorus-containing substance b. Function Sterols (ring structure) [ two sterols ] a. Examples: cholesterol & vitamin D b. Cholesterol Classification 1) FAs (MUFA, PUFA, SFA) 2) TGs 3) Sterol (cholesterol) 4) Phospholipid 5) Fake fat (olestra) FAs differ in their deg. ō saturation. Saturated, monounsaturated, & polyunsaturated fat have diff. physical prop. & occur in diff. foods as a result. Bonding affects FAs physical prop. Fatty acids (FAs) What is valence? What is the valence ō carbon? What kinds ō bonds does it form? valence : characteristic number ō chem. bonds formed by particular chem. elt. ( chemistry : Ea. atom has characteristic number ō chemical bonds it can form w/ other atoms; 2 atoms to share electrons.) Carbon has valence ō 4 because it always forms 4 bonds.
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