NS 132 SQ 19 - Pregnancy Study Questions Synopsis Beginning...

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Pregnancy: Study Questions Synopsis : Beginning w/ this lecture, we begin integrating nutrition concepts you have already learned by applying core concepts to larger issues. The pregnancy lecture, for example begins a focus on “Diet in the life cycle” which will also include lectures on breastfeeding & the feeding ō infants & children. Another issue- “Nutrition in the environment” - forms the basis ō a lecture. Finally, the course concludes w/ a summary lecture - “Putting it all together.” Textbook readings: Chapter 13 I. Prenatal growth & development a. Stages ō growth i. Gestation 40 wks. ii. Pregnancy divided into trimesters b. Fetal growth [the placenta ] i. Hyperplasia ii. Hypertrophy c. First trimester [vulnerable periods ō development ] i. Critical for development ii. Teratogens - cause birth defects d. Second trimester e. Third trimester f. Successful pregnancy i. Gestation >37 wks. ii. Birth weight > 5.5 lbs. iii. Quality ō life good iv. Nutrition is key, esp. first trimester Prenatal growth & development Stages ō growth How long is a normal pregnancy? Normal gestation/pregnancy ≈ 40 wks. What units do we commonly divide pregnancy into? Pregnancy is commonly divided into trimesters . Fetal growth What are the two types ō fetal growth? 2 Types ō Fetal Growth : 1) hyperplasia : increase in no. ō cells 2) hypertrophy : increase in size ō cells First trimester Why is this trimester a critical time for development? 1 st trimester comprises critical developmental stages in which organs form. Fetus is most vulnerable to teratogens . - fetus : 1 oz. in weight by end ō 1 st trimester
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What are teratogens? Name two. At what point is the fetus most susceptible to them? teratogens : chems. that cause birth defects Fetus is most susceptible to teratogens in 1 st trimester . 1) High Doses ō Retinol (+): vit. A supplements/fortification (2-3x RDA ↑ risk ō birth defects); no risk for beta carotene 2) Alcohol Intake (+): causes Fetal Alcohol Syndrome severe birth defects 3) Folic Acid Deficiency (-): neural tube defects ( e.g. spina bifida) What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome? What are its effects? How can one guard against it? - Alcohol causes Fetal Alcohol Syndrome severe birth defects - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: largest known cause ō mental retardation - Alcohol selectively affects developing brain & targets high-order or “executive functions” more than IQ. o attention deficit, impulsive, tell cause-&-effect, hard to refocus on tasks - Alcohol kills neurons, especially during neuron creation & synapse formation - There is no safe time to drink during pregnancy or nursing. o 1 drink per day causes serious mental losses o alcohol : most vulnerable early on in pregnancy What is the effect ō a nutrient deficiency? Second trimester About how big is the fetus at this point?
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