Chunking 21 - Jonas Cameron Mrs McAndrew AP US History II 27 November 2017 Chapter 21 An Emerging World Power 1890\u20131918 1 From Expansion to

Chunking 21 - Jonas Cameron Mrs McAndrew AP US History II...

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Jonas Cameron Mrs. McAndrew AP US History II 27 November 2017 Chapter 21 - An Emerging World Power, 1890–1918 1. From Expansion to Imperialism Foreign Policies & Imperialism in early 20th century are tied to the relentless continental expansion that involved much war; policymakers now seek a global market 2. Foundations of Empire Afraid that unsatisfied workers in poor conditions would turn socialist/Marxist, US seeks to expand to oversea markets to create jobs, prosperity, & power Intellectual society also favored imperialism due to American Exceptionalism, the idea that the US had a unique destiny to foster democracy/civilization (Anglo-Saxon race) “Anglo-Saxon” superiority (white descent) + prejudice at home justified imperialism Also justified by racial Social Darwinism; global occupation + fear of survival of the fittest make America construct steel battleships 1886 Cleveland’s Sec. of State Olney confronts Europe: Latin America/Western Hemisphere is off-limits to more colonization, is only for US (Monroe Doctrine); Britain agrees 3. The War of 1898 1895 after Cubans rebel, Spain puts them in brutal concentration camps; yellow journalists (Hearst) make it a popular cause, sparks nationalism for Cuban independence Cleveland didn’t agree w/ Cuban indep.; McKinley tells Spain to make peace 1898 a letter from Spain minister + sinking of U.S. battleship Maine increases passions
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March 27 McKinley sends an ultimatum for ceasefire & US mediation for Cuban independence; April 11 he asks Congress to intervene in the name of civilization The Spanish-American War, or War of 1898, ensues; Teller Amendment reassured that US would uphold democracy abroad by denying efforts to obtain Cuba, but McKinley wants to keep everything that is gained April 24 Spain declares war, provoking war fever; lots of volunteers & hasty preparation Aug 13 US captures Philippines in Pacific; Hawaii had treaties for sugar trade & Pearl Harbor, US tries to annex it 1892, Cleveland rejects Hawaii now a strategic halfway point to Philippines; Congress votes for annexation US also gets Guam & Puerto Rico before touching Cuba San Juan Hill early July, US forces beat Spain to surrender; most casualties from disease 4. Spoils of War US/Spain sign peace treaty: Cuba indep, Guam/Puerto Rico to US; McKinley says annex all Philippines, starts debate; many anti-imperialists resist (Addams, Twain, Carnegie) WJ Bryan puts Demo support behind McKinley, US gets Phil. for $20 mil, Treaty of Paris Cuba rebels attack US forces, starts 3-year warfare that kills 4.2k US & 200k Filipino Fighting ended 1902, Taft governor of Philippines Constitutional issues: Filipinos get religious freedom but not citizenship; in 1901 Insular Cases, S.C. upholds that acquired territories didn’t mean citizens, Congress decides 1902 Platt Amendment forced on Cuban constitution, limits Cuban independence, forces loyalty to US; Cuba & Phil. independence limited, Phil. eventually get independence 5. A Power Among Powers Theodore Roosevelt support imperialism and US direction the affairs of “backward
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peoples,” bringing democracy & progressivism; wants strong fed. govt. & global balance
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