Jonas Cameron Mrs. McAndrew AP US History II 27 November 2017 Chapter 21 - An Emerging World Power, 1890–1918 1. From Expansion to Imperialism ● Foreign Policies & Imperialism in early 20th century are tied to the relentless continental expansion that involved much war; policymakers now seek a global market 2. Foundations of Empire ● Afraid that unsatisfied workers in poor conditions would turn socialist/Marxist, US seeks to expand to oversea markets to create jobs, prosperity, & power ● Intellectual society also favored imperialism due to American Exceptionalism, the idea that the US had a unique destiny to foster democracy/civilization (Anglo-Saxon race) ● “Anglo-Saxon” superiority (white descent) + prejudice at home justified imperialism ● Also justified by racial Social Darwinism; global occupation + fear of survival of the fittest make America construct steel battleships 1886 ● Cleveland’s Sec. of State Olney confronts Europe: Latin America/Western Hemisphere is off-limits to more colonization, is only for US (Monroe Doctrine); Britain agrees 3. The War of 1898 ● 1895 after Cubans rebel, Spain puts them in brutal concentration camps; yellow journalists (Hearst) make it a popular cause, sparks nationalism for Cuban independence ● Cleveland didn’t agree w/ Cuban indep.; McKinley tells Spain to make peace ● 1898 a letter from Spain minister + sinking of U.S. battleship Maine increases passions
● March 27 McKinley sends an ultimatum for ceasefire & US mediation for Cuban independence; April 11 he asks Congress to intervene in the name of civilization ● The Spanish-American War, or War of 1898, ensues; Teller Amendment reassured that US would uphold democracy abroad by denying efforts to obtain Cuba, but McKinley wants to keep everything that is gained ● April 24 Spain declares war, provoking war fever; lots of volunteers & hasty preparation ● Aug 13 US captures Philippines in Pacific; Hawaii had treaties for sugar trade & Pearl Harbor, US tries to annex it 1892, Cleveland rejects ● Hawaii now a strategic halfway point to Philippines; Congress votes for annexation ● US also gets Guam & Puerto Rico before touching Cuba ● San Juan Hill early July, US forces beat Spain to surrender; most casualties from disease 4. Spoils of War ● US/Spain sign peace treaty: Cuba indep, Guam/Puerto Rico to US; McKinley says annex all Philippines, starts debate; many anti-imperialists resist (Addams, Twain, Carnegie) ● WJ Bryan puts Demo support behind McKinley, US gets Phil. for $20 mil, Treaty of Paris ● Cuba rebels attack US forces, starts 3-year warfare that kills 4.2k US & 200k Filipino ● Fighting ended 1902, Taft governor of Philippines ● Constitutional issues: Filipinos get religious freedom but not citizenship; in 1901 Insular Cases, S.C. upholds that acquired territories didn’t mean citizens, Congress decides ● 1902 Platt Amendment forced on Cuban constitution, limits Cuban independence, forces loyalty to US; Cuba & Phil. independence limited, Phil. eventually get independence 5. A Power Among Powers ● Theodore Roosevelt support imperialism and US direction the affairs of “backward
peoples,” bringing democracy & progressivism; wants strong fed. govt. & global balance
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