Bacteria.docx

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Introduction Several hundred bacterial species and a total of 10 14 cells colonize the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract in a mutualistic relationship with the host and its immune system . 1 , 2 A healthy gut microbiota is stable and serves various useful functions such as metabolizing barely digestible polysaccharides , 3 , 4 detoxifying toxic products, 5 serving as a barrier against pathogens, 6 , 7 and aiding in the development of the host immune system. 8 However, it has become clear through recent studies that dysbiosis , in which the symbiotic relationship between the host and gut microbiota is altered, is associated with various diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 9 irritable bowel syndrome , 10 obesity, 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 allergy, 15 autoimmune disease, and brain disorders. 16 Although intestinal bacterial colonization begins when a fetus is in the lower uterus, an infant's gut microbiota is established after birth. The establishment of a stable gut microbiota generally accompanies two big transitions in infancy. The first transition
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  • Spring '16
  • prietmann
  • Bacteria, Gut flora

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