Kine 198-Choices in Health Care Today

Kine 198-Choices in - Choices in Health Care Today Exploring Contemporary and Alternative Medicine Chapter Ten"It is more important to know

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Unformatted text preview: Choices in Health Care Today: Exploring Contemporary and Alternative Medicine Chapter Ten "It is more important to know what sort of person has a disease than to know what sort of disease a person has."" - Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.) Introduction To achieve a high level of health and wellness, it is important to make informed health care decisions. 2 Main Camps of Health Care Conventional Medicine Complementary and Alternative Medicine Conventional Medicine Hospital, Doctors, and Nurses diagnose and treat symptoms Also called Western Medicine, Biomedical Medicine, and Allopathic Medicine Developed from the evidence-based scientific method Dates back to the mid-1800s with the discovery of the germ & its link to illness Complementary and Alternative Medicine A group of traditional systems and practices CAM may be used in conjunction with conventional care OR as an alternative to conventional care CAM cont... The emphasis in CAM is holistic The increasing use of CAM is likely, as people seek out options in health care that best meet their needs The most commonly used CAM therapies are prayer for health, natural products, deep breathing, meditation, and chiropractic. CAM cont... 36% of adults use some form of CAM therapy on a regular basis When prayer and multi-vitamin use are included 62% of adults use some form of CAM Caucasian college educated women in a higher income bracket use CAM more than other segments of the population CAM cont... CAM Modalities Now in Mainstream Medicine Codeine for pain Digitalis for heart failure Quinine for malaria Aspirin for fever Behavioral therapy for headache Hypnosis for smoking cessation Exercise for diabetes Support groups for breast cancer Low fat, low cholesterol diets CAM cont... 5 Domains of CAM Alternative Health Care Systems Manipulative and Body-Based Therapies Biological Based Therapies Mind-Body Medicine Energy Therapies Alternative Health Care Systems Holistic "whole person" systems (refers to treating more than just a patient's symptoms) The CAM practitioner often interviews the patient in an attempt to determine the patient's history, eating habits, lifestyle choices, etc... The CAM practitioner will spend a fair amount of time with their patient Alternative Health Care Systems Types: Ayurveda Medicine Homeopathy Medicine Naturopathy Traditional Oriental Medicine Alternative Health Care Systems Ayurveda Possibly the oldest medical system known. It is based on the belief that the natural sate of the body is one of balance. We become ill when this balance is disrupted. It emphasizes strengthening and purifying the whole person in conventional medicine the focus is on a set of symptoms or an isolated region of the body. 5 elements: earth, water, fire, air, and space Alternative Health Care Systems Homeopathy Based on a 3 pronged theory: Like cures like Treatment is very individualized Less is more Practitioners give very diluted forms of the substance that causes the symptoms of the disease in healthy people to the ill. Homeopaths use herbals, chemicals, & minerals Alternative Health Care Systems Naturopathy Naturopaths emphasize restoring health rather than curing disease "Tools" found in nature: magnets, water, heat, crystals, the sun, herbal medicine, manipulation, light therapy, electrical currents 3 naturopathic schools in the U.S. a naturopath may use the title "doctor", but they are not an M.D. Alternative Health Care Systems Traditional Oriental Medicine (TOM) A comprehensive system that dates back to the Stone Age. It includes acupuncture, acupressure, herbal medicine, oriental massage, and qi gong. All TOM recognizes an energy force that flows through the body called qi (pronounced chi). Qi consists of spiritual, physical, mental, and emotional aspects of life. Yin and yang are the vital forces of life that run throughout the 12 meridians w/in the body. Manipulative and Body-Based Therapies This domain includes movement or manipulation of part of the body. Types: Chiropractic Massage Reflexology Craniosacral Therapy Manipulative and Body-Based Therapies Chiropractic A medical treatment defined as the science of spinal manipulation. Most commonly used form of CAM in the U.S. Chiropractors train for up to 6 years with indepth courses in anatomy, physiology, nutrition, and pathology. Manipulative and Body-Based Therapies Massage Involves manipulation of muscle and connective tissue to enhance function of those tissues and to promote relaxation and wellbeing Fortune 500 companies are including massage as a benefit for their employees Small companies that offer on-site 15 minute massage are seeing the benefit in lower employee absenteeism due to headache, fatigue and back pain Manipulative and Body-Based Therapies Reflexology Based on the fact that the feet and hands represent a microcosm of the body and that specific parts of the foot and hand correspond or "reflex" to other parts of the body. Used in ancient medical practices. Modern reflexology was developed in the early 1900's in England. Manipulative and Body-Based Therapies Craniosacral Therapy A therapy that uses gentle touch to evaluate the physiological functioning of the craniosacral system (considered to be as relaxing as a massage). Imbalance in this system may cause sensory or motor dysfunction This therapy is typically used by people experiencing chronic pain & haven't found relief with other therapies. Biological Based Therapies Therapies that use substances found in nature such as food, vitamins, minerals, and herbal products. Some biological based therapies are evidencebased and the population has benefited (e.g., fortified food with folic acid to prevent neural tube defects). Consumers should research the therapy and use common sense. Biological Based Therapies Types: Macrobiotics Herbals and Dietary Supplements Vitamins and Minerals Biological Based Therapies Macrobiotics A discipline based on a philosophy of balance in accordance with the universe. Managing or changing diet to enhance health or for spiritual benefit - it is characterized by excluding meat and concentrating heavily on whole grains. Practices emphasize an active life, a positive mental outlook, and regularly eating small portions Biological Based Therapies Herbals and Dietary Supplements Hot trend 4 billion $$$ industry Herbal therapy is most likely the oldest and most widely used therapy with roots in TOM Herbs are substances derived from trees, flowers, plants, seaweed, and lichen. Found in some manufactured drugs; drugs can also be a synthetic copy of the herb. Herbs are drugs and should only be consumed when prescribed. Biological Based Therapies Herbs and Dietary Supplements cont... When using the herbal remedy correctly, there may be an adverse interaction with food, over the counter drugs, vitamins & minerals, or prescription drugs (e.g., St. John's Wort clears 50% of all pharmaceutical drugs from the human body). Work with an experienced herbalist (helps regulate the quality of the product your getting). Use caution when self-prescribing (products may be contaminated; you may have an allergic reaction; certain amounts of the herb can be toxic) Biological Based Therapies Herbs and Dietary Supplements cont... Ephedra derived from the Chinese herb Ma Huang Traditionally Ma Huang had been used to treat asthma and other respiration ailments. Ephedra was a factor in the death of Orioles pitching prospect Steve Belcher in 2003 USFDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutriti Biological Based Therapies Vitamins and Minerals 2 of the 6 essential components for life in the human diet A little is good but more is not always better Best way to get them is through a balanced diet Consult your physician or CAM practitioner Biological Based Therapies Vitamins and Minerals cont... What about fish oil capsules, ginseng, chromium? Log onto HerbMed for herbal info or Medline Plus for other supplement info. HerbMed Medline Plus Mind-Body Medicine Taps into the connection between the physical body and the very powerful mind. Designed to enhance the mind's capacity to influence the body Creative therapy involving dance, art, and music as well as prayer and mental healing are considered mind-body. Mind-Body Medicine Meditation A way to deal with the effects of chronic stress Being able to let go - taking time to relax and shut out external stimuli (20 minutes is great) There are numerous meditative techniques there is no "right" way to meditate Almost all techniques involve focus on breathing. Conventional health professionals are recommending meditation as a way to deal with chronic stress as well as chronic pain Mind-Body Medicine Applied Psycho-Neuro-Immunology The science of how our experiences are encoded neurologically and how this affects our immune and hormonal systems. Our bodies' encounter, adapt and react to stress directly affecting our immune system. Depression can cause a breakdown of our immune system the reverse can be true as well. The power of the mind can be positively used to boost the immune system to a high level. Mind-Body Medicine Prayer and Spirituality Spirituality is experiencing resurgence among Americans 55% consider themselves spiritual & religious 24% consider themselves spiritual but not religious More than of medical schools in the U.S. now offer an elective course on "Spirituality in Medicine" 84% of Americans believe praying for the sick can improve their chance of recovery. Mind-Body Medicine Yoga A mind/body/spiritual discipline that is rooted in the ancient Hindu religion traced back 5,000 years. There are many different styles: gentle, meditative, powerful, and relaxing yoga Physicians recognize the benefits of strengthening the physical body & calming the mind through conscious relaxation. Mind-Body Medicine Guided Imagery A concept that has been used successfully with people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Mindfulness A concept that includes strategies and activities that help us be more in the present moment. Mind-Body Medicine Somatic Movement Re-educates the neuromuscular system toward greater health & well-being through hands-on movement work by the practitioner. Meditation, visualization, craniosacral therapy and myofascial release techniques are often practiced by the somatic movement practitioner. Mind-Body Medicine Feldenkrais Method A form of somatic movement education that uses gentle movement and directed attention to improve movement and enhance human functioning Excellent for dancers, athletes, and those limited by neuromuscular pain or neurological dysfunction Mind-Body Medicine Animal-Assisted Therapy The use of companion animals to help people with special needs. Spending time with a pet not only has emotional and psychological benefits but physiological benefits as well. Petting and caring for a loved animal can reduce blood pressure and heart rate and improve survival rates from heart disease. Dog owners make 21% fewer visits to the Dr. Energy Therapies Therapies that engage the use of energy fields that surround the body and penetrate the body. Types Qi gong Reiki Therapeutic Touch Bioenergy Energy Therapies Qi gong Combines movement, meditation, and regulation of breathing to enhance the flow of vital energy (Qi), improve blood circulation, and enhance immune function. "A self-healing art" that uses visualization and imagery with movement and meditation. Energy Therapies Reiki (pronounced ray-key) A type of energy work that utilizes touch and visualization. Practiced using the Eastern concept of the 5 chakras in the body, as well as using the organs and glands from Western anatomy. Energy Therapies Therapeutic Touch Alleged to induce the relaxation response, alleviate pain, and to speed the healing process. The patient is not actually touched. Energy Therapies Bioenergy Practitioners use psychotherapy, grounding exercise, and deep breathing to assist in releasing muscular tension, pain, & illness. Pain & illness are thought to be caused by suppressed emotions & behaviors Summary There are many more CAM therapies. Conventional health professionals and CAM practitioners have common goals for patients to have good health & wellness. All approaches and modalities that provide a sound basis for promoting optimal health will have an effect on the health care delivery system in the future. Contacts Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine www.acupuncturealliance.org Alternative Medicine: Health Care Information Resources http://hsl.mcmaster.ca/tomflem/altmed.html Alternative Medicine Foundation www.amfoundation.org Contacts cont... American Massage Therapy Association www.amtamassage.org American Yoga Association www.americanyogaassociation.org The Art of Living Foundation www.artofliving.org Contacts cont... Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society; University of Massachusetts Medical School www.umassmed.edu/cfm Mind/Body Medical Institute www.mindbody.harvard.edu ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course KINE 198 taught by Professor Any during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

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