CHM 2045 - CH 8 CLUTCH PREP.pdf

CHM 2045 - CH 8 CLUTCH PREP.pdf - CHEMISTRY KOTZ 9E CH.8...

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CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.8 - BONDING & MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
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CONCEPT: ATOMIC PROPERTIES AND CHEMICAL BONDS Before we examine the types of chemical bonding, we should ask why atoms bond at all. Generally, the reason is that ionic bonding ____________ the potential energy between positive and negative ions. Generally, the reason covalent bonds form is to follow the ____________ rule, in which the element is then surrounded by 8 valence electrons. There are three models of chemical bonding: In ____________________ bonding, metals connect to non-metals. __________________ transfers an electron to the ________________ , creating ions with opposite charges that are attracted to each other. Li F Li F Li F In _______________ bonding, non-metals connect to non-metals. In it the nonmetals __________________ electron pairs between their nuclei. Cl Cl In _______________ bonding, metal atoms “pool” their valence electrons to form an electron “sea” that holds the metal-ion together CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.8 - BONDING & MOLECULAR STRUCTURE Page 2
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CONCEPT: CHEMICAL BONDS (PRACTICE) EXAMPLE: Describe each of the following as either a(n): atomic element, molecular element, molecular compound or ionic compound. atomic element –– molecular element –– molecular compound –– ionic compound –– a. Iodine b. NH 3 c. Graphite d. Na 3 P e. Ag 2 (SO 4 ) 2 CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.8 - BONDING & MOLECULAR STRUCTURE Page 3
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CONCEPT: THE IONIC-BONDING MODEL The central idea of ionic bonding is that the metal transfers an electron(s) to a nonmetal. The metal then becomes a(n) ____________ (positive ion). and the nonmetal becomes a(n) _____________ (negative ion). Their opposite charges cause them to combine into a crystalline solid. PRACTICE: Determine the molecular formula of the compound formed from each of the following ions. a. K + & P 3- b. Sn 4+ & O 2- c. Al 3+ & CO 3 2- CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.8 - BONDING & MOLECULAR STRUCTURE Page 4
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CONCEPT: DIPOLE ARROWS Before drawing covalent compounds we first need to understand the idea of polarity and its connection to electronegativity. Polarity arises whenever two elements are connected to each other and there is a significant difference in their electronegativities. Generally, electronegativity ________________ going from left to right of a period and ________________ going down a group. To show this difference in electronegativity we use a dipole arrow. The dipole arrow points towards the ________________ electronegative element. The Effect of Electronegativity Difference on Bond Classification Electronegativity Difference ( Δ EN) Bond Classification Example Zero (0.0) Pure Covalent Small (0.1 – 0.4) Nonpolar Covalent Intermediate (0.4 – 1.7) Polar Covalent Large (Greater than 1.7) Ionic CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.8 - BONDING & MOLECULAR STRUCTURE Page 5
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  • Fall '12
  • Dr.PatriciaSnyder
  • Atom, Electron, Ion, Chemical bond, BONDING & MOLECULAR STRUCTURE

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