CHM 2045 - CH 2 CLUTCH PREP.pdf

CHM 2045 - CH 2 CLUTCH PREP.pdf - CHEMISTRY KOTZ 9E CH.2...

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CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.2 - ATOMS, MOLECULES & IONS
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CONCEPT: GROUP NAMES AND CLASSIFICATIONS Ever wonder where did this periodic table ever come from? At the end of the 18 th century, Lavoisier compiled a list of the 23 elements known at the time. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev coined the term “Periodic Table” . Today the total is 114 and still counting! Now, to understand chemistry fully it will be imperative that you memorize and learn the different portions of the Periodic Table. Phase Differences At room temperature (between 20 o C to 25 o C), all elements are _______________ except: Mercury and bromine are _______________ . Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Chlorine and the Noble Gases are ____________. CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.2 - ATOMS, MOLECULES & IONS Page 2
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CONCEPT: CHARGE DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE PERIODIC TABLE A majority of the elements on the periodic table are reactive because they all want to be like the _____________________. They have the perfect number of electrons in their outer atomic shells. 1. Metals tend to __________ electrons to become positively charged ions called _____________ . Metals that have ONLY one charge are referred to as ________________ metals. Metals that have MORE THAN one charge are referred to as ________________ metals. 2. Nonmetals tend to __________ electrons to become negatively charged ions called _____________. CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.2 - ATOMS, MOLECULES & IONS Page 3
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CONCEPT: ELEMENT SYMBOLS Some of the names and symbols for the elements are easy to recognize like Aluminum is Al, but some others aren’t. EXAMPLE 1: Identify the elements by their given symbols. a. Au b. Hg c. Pb d. Fe e. Ag Some elements exist in nature connected to their exact double. We call these chemical Siamese twins ________________________________ . To recall them just remember this funny phrase: H ave N o F ear O f I ce C old B eer Some elements exist in nature as monoatomic elements such as _______________ & _______________ . Some elements exist in nature as polyatomic molecules such as _______________ & _______________ . CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.2 - ATOMS, MOLECULES & IONS Page 4
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CONCEPT: MASS CONVERSIONS The _______________ is the chemical unit for the amount of a substance. One mole (1 mol) contains 6.022 x 10 23 entities, which is known as _______________ __________________________ . Entities means ______________________ , ______________________ or ______________________ . We use ______________________ when dealing with a single, individual element. We use _________________ or _________________ when dealing with more than one element or a compound. 6.022 x 10 23 atoms of Fe is equal to 1 mole of Fe and has a mass of 55.85 amu Atoms Moles Grams EXAMPLE: Determine the mass (in grams) found in 7.28 x 10 28 nitrogen atoms. 6.022 x 10 23 molecules of H 2 O is equal to 1 mole of H 2 O and has a mass of 18.016 amu Molecules Moles Grams EXAMPLE: Determine how many molecules of carbon dioxide, CO 2 , are found in 75.0 g CO 2 . CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.2 - ATOMS, MOLECULES & IONS Page 5
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CONCEPT: MASS CONVERSIONS (PRACTICE) PRACTICE 1: If the density of water is 1.00 g/mL at 25 o C calculate the number of water molecules found in 1.50 x 10 3 µ L of water. PRACTICE 2: Calculate the number of oxygen atoms found in 783.9 g CuSO 4 · 5 H 2 O.
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