CHM 2045 - CH 1 CLUTCH PREP.pdf

CHM 2045 - CH 1 CLUTCH PREP.pdf - CHEMISTRY KOTZ 9E CH.1...

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CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.1 - BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY
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CONCEPT: MATTER Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes, with the ______ _____ ______ being its basic functional unit. When two or more of these elements chemically bond together they form an independent structure called a molecule. Classification of Matter Under appropriate conditions of pressure and temperature, most substances can exist in 3 states of matter: _______________, _______________ and ________________. _______________ have a fixed shape and volume. ______________ take up the shape and volume of a container. _______________ conform to the shape of a container, but not the volume. __________________ __________________ __________________ Microscopic Explanation for the Behavior of Gases, Liquids and Solids Gas Liquid Solid Assumes the ___________ and ___________ of its container. Assumes the __________ of the portion of its container it occupies, but not the __________ . Maintains a fixed ___________ and ___________ ___________________ compressible Viscosity Viscosity Viscosity ____________________ Viscous ___________________ compressible ___________________ compressible ____________________ Viscous ____________________ Viscous CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.1 - BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY Page 2
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CONCEPT: SCIENTIFIC NOTATION We use scientific notation to turn small or large, inconvenient numbers into manageable ones. 6.88 x 10 -12 The first number 6.88 is called the __________________________. It must be greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10. The second number is known as the ______________________. It must always be 10 in scientific notation. In the number 6.88 x 10 -12 , the number -12 is referred to as the ____________________. EXAMPLE 1: Convert the following numbers into scientific notation a. 377,000 b. 0.000101 c. 707.82 d. 161.00 x 10 7 e. 0.0628 x 10 -9 CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.1 - BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY Page 3
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CONCEPT: ERROR Even though we try to be as accurate as possible, there is always some level of uncertainty called ____________________ . When we investigate the quality of an experimental decision or calculation we take into account two major principles : __________________ deals with the reproducibility of our calculations. __________________ deals with how close our measured calculation is to the “actual” value. EXAMPLE 1: Which of the 4 following images is not precise and not accurate? PRACTICE: A student must measure the weight of a sodium bicarbonate compound, NaHCO 3 , and obtains the following measurements : 23.12 g, 23.08 g and 23.17g. If the true weight of the compound is 18.01 g what can be said about the student’s results? a. They are accurate and precise. b. They are accurate, but not precise. c. They are neither accurate or precise. d. They are not accurate, but precise. CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.1 - BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY Page 4
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CONCEPT: EVALUATING YOUR MEAN VALUE The ____________________________ measures how close data results are in relation to the mean, or average, value. To check if the results are close to the “true” value we can merely look, but sometimes determining their accuracy may require more work. Σ ( x 1 x ) 2 n 1 x = x = n = CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.1 - BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY Page 5
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CONCEPT: METRIC PREFIXES pico nano micro milli centi deci 0 deca hecto kilo mega giga tera (p) (n) ( µ ) (m) (c) (d) (da) (h) (k) (M) (G) (T) 10 -12 10 -9 10 -6 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 6 10 9 10 12 CHEMISTRY - KOTZ 9E CH.1 - BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY Page 6
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CONCEPT: SIGNIFICANT FIGURES Significant figures are necessary to communicate the level of accuracy with which values are recorded. It can be easy if you
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  • Fall '12
  • Dr.PatriciaSnyder
  • Chemistry, Chemical reaction, Kilogram, Chemical substance

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