IELTS WRITING (2007 THE ORIENTAL).pdf

IELTS WRITING (2007 THE ORIENTAL).pdf - Product Description...

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Unformatted text preview: Product Description The authors o f this book for many years , and after repeated practice o f the classroom, in accordance w ith China IELTS candidates to study the characteristics o f writing and gradual m anner China IELTS candidates for the practical problem s o f writing, w ith analysis o f IELTS common gram m ar rules and use problem summary commonly used form o f syntax errors. -2 5 0 Exercises are given in IELTSW ritingCom m only used in sentences, candidates can serve several purposes. - W ell-designed 230 Chinese-English translate practice. - M ore than 100 articles to help candidates develop ideas. - IELTS appendix contains 420 high-frequency verbs, adjectives and nouns w ith com mon phrases. CHAPTER I. IELTS WRITING GRAMMAR, ERROR CORRECTION AND TRANSLATION IELTS W riting Section ten classes com m on syntax errors Section IELTS G ram m ar Corrector scouring solution Section IELTS and expression o f com m only used w ords o f the translation Small essay writing section outlines Section II of the chart 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The The The The The The chart title outlines chart essay w riting steps chart essay to note a few key issues chart essay note chart essay Classic Images chart essay w riting sample Section III. Flowchart Section IV. Writing letters 1. 2. 3. 4. The form at of letters The classification of letters Letters of the com m on language Letter W riting Sample CHAPTER III : THE LARGEST IELTS ESSAY WRITING Section I. Great essay writing A great essay w riting outline Review Program s Section II. IELTS examination process and examination Great WritingSkills 1 12 9 及 9 * P^ P ^ P G Q 3 44 5 0 50 殳 殳 殳 11l 6c 1 ^ 2 11 114 11 111 11 CHAPTER II. IELTS WRITING OVERVIEW AND EXAMPLES OF SMALL 3 20 66 8( 9''2 0: ,0 2' 2: 2(,9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. H ow H ow H ow H ow H ow to to to to to moderation determ ine the text structure write at the beginning o f paragraph expand the interm ediate segm ent write a concluding paragraph 145 147 149 153 158 Section III. Should be noted that some major issues Section IV Writing Great Writing Analysis 159 162 1. Globalization and im pact 2. Governm ent investm ent in 3. The im pact o f technological developm ent on life 4. Elem ents o f culture and protection 5. Lifestyles and social attitudes 6. A rt 7. M edia Inform ation 8. Advertising 9. Environmental issues 10. Animal 11. The gap between rural and urban areas and urbanization 12. The prevention o f crime 13. Disadvantaged groups 14. Sports 15. Educational m ethods and educational content 16. The education o f children 17. Secondary education 18. UniversityEducation 162 175 191 208 217 231 235 242 250 261 269 274 281 292 297 316 333 349 Appendix: 1. Common transitive verb, and object matching 2. Common adjectives and nouns m odified 3. Common nouns and adjectives with 353 360 367 章雅思写作语法 改错及翻译 一 般 来 说 ,一篇雅思作文如果不出现太多明显的语法错误,就可以保证得六分: >在英文学习 巾 ,语法学习比增加词汇量要简单得多。很多考生通常将全部精力放仵记忆词汇上,在写作屮用 复杂的 同 ,艽实这是一个误区。阁为考官只在乎考生是灼叶以将观点表达淸楚,丨 〖 【 1_+在乎考生能 否罗列: 堆复杂的近义词 D 如果出现大量的语法错误或者大量使爪不当的单词,那么就会在很 大程度丄影响考官对芩生试卷的卬象,分数也会因此而不理想。 雅思的语法学习主要有两种方法:一足 识別常见的语法错误,在写作中加以避 免 ;二是理 • 解句子成分和句子结构,从 错 误 ,并提供了大 íả -S i f f t j 写出正确的句子。本 章 总 结 中围学生在书面作文中常犯的语法 Ĩ 法改错和翻译练习,旨在提高考十的语法能力和对句子的认知能力 无论 V 对于目前的考试或者是 远的学习,本章内容都是非常簠要的。 K 第 一 节 雅 思 作 文 十 大 类 常 见 语 法 错 设 一 、 句子不完整 a. — 个简单句有两个基本成分:主语和谓语动词,两者缺一不可 Í列 1: In China has more than 】 00 m illion subscribers to cable television. ( 错误。in C hina 为介宾短语,不能充当主语。) China has more than 100 m illion subscribers Lo cable television. ( 正确。 中囯有超过一亿的有线电视用户。) Í列 2 :One o f the many benefits o f travelling overseas learning how to cope w ith the unexpected. ( 错误。这句话并没有谓语动词 , learning 是 动 名 词 :不 能 作 谓 语 J One o f the many bencfils o f travelling overseas is learning how 1:0 copc with the unexpected. ( 正确。去国外旅行的众多好处之二是学习如何处理 k 发亊件 d b . 如果一个句子有从句 , 也必须保证从句的完整性 . 例 : Those who overweight or indulge in unhealthy diets are candidates for heart attacks. (错误 3 从 句 中 的 overweight是个形容词,前 而 缺 一 个 系 动 词 ) Those who are overweight or indulge in unhealthy diets are candidates for heart attacks. ( 正确。那些体重过重或者喜欢不健康饮食的人是心脏病的潜在患者。) C . 介词后面一定要加名词、代词或者从句作宾语 例 : A marked character o f cooperative learning is that personal success only springs from. ( 错 误 3 fro m 是 介 词 ,后面要加宾语 ,) A marked character o f cooperative leaminẹ is that personal success only springs from group success. ( 正确。合作学习的一个显著特征是个人的成功只能源于团队成功 0) < i. 在大多数情况下,比较级后面一般要加 th a n ,并且清晰指明所比较的对象 例 : Divorce is more common. ( 錯误 u 缺 than。) Divorcc is more com in on than it was one generation ago. ( 正确。现 在 ,离婚的现象比上一代要 Ặ 遍。〉 二 、句子成分多余 a . — 个简单句通常只有一个主语,如果主语超过一个.要使用连词构成并列主语 例 : Smoking, drinking arc banned in many placcs o f work. ( 構误。sm oking 和 d rin kin g 都是主 语 ,要用连词。) Smoking and drinking are banned in many places o f work. ( 正補。抽烟和喝酒在很多工作场所都是被禁止的 3) b . 如果一个句子中出现多个谓语动词,要使用连词连接构成并列动词,或者在一些句子中使用 关系 代词 构成 复合句有一些动词后面可以跟动词怍宾语或者宾语补足语 例 1: The media distorts reality, categorises things as all good or all bad. ( 错误。distorts 和 categorises都是谓语动词,需 要 加 连 词 and。) The media distorts reality and categorises things as all good or all bad. (正确。媒体歪 曲事实,把亊情界定成全部是好的或全部是坏的 c ) 例 2 :11 is unclear recycling can lielp control pollution. ( 错 误 。 出 现 is 和 can h e lp 两 个 谓 语 动 词 ,根据句意它们之间需要加连接词构成复合 句 It is unclear whether recycling can help control pollution. (正确o废物回收是否有助于控制污染仍然是不清楚的。) 例 3 :It is advertising makes us buy something on a whim. ( 错误 c 这是一个 ÍS 调 句 型 ,is 和 makes都是谓语动词,需 要 加 上 连 词 th a t 使强调句型 完整/ ) It is advertising that makes us buy something on a whim. ( 正确 3 是广告让我们因为心血来潮而买东西。) C . 如 果 一 个 句 子 出 现 多 个 宾 语 , 一 般 要 使 用 连 词 连 接 构 成 并 列 宾 语 但 是 也 有 一 些 动 词 ,如 y iv e 、o ffe r 等可以跟双宾语 例 : More people would prefer cycling,walking i f conditions were right. ( 错误。c y clin g 和 w a lkin g 都是宾语,应该用连词。) More people would prefer cycling or walking if conditions were right. ( 正确 c 如果条件允许的话,更多的人会 i 欢骑自行车或者是 k 路 d . 如果出现两个句子,中间除了用加连词这种方法之外 • 还 可 以 用 标 点 符 号 分 割 ,比如用句号 者分号 : 句号和分号在语法上有连词的功能,其前后要有完整的句 子 ;而 逗 号 、括号则不能 够连接完整的句子 例 ; Education has been made available to more people nowadays, however, many adults have some problems w ith literacy and numeracy. ( 错误。however是 个 副 词 ,不是连词,其前后都是完整的句子,因此不能用逗号连接。) Education has been made available to more people nowadays; however, many adults have some problems with literacy and numeracy. ( 正确。如今,更多的人可以获得教育。然而,很多成年人在读写和计算方面仍然有问题。 ) e . 部分名词短语可独立作时间状语,前面不能加介词 < 例 : People can travel to and from duty in every day on foot or by bike. (错误 D every d a y 作 状 语 ,前面不能加介词。) People can travel to and from duty every day on foot or by bike. ( 正确。人们可以每天通过步行或者自行车上下班。) 一般来说,becausc和 su 、a lth o u g h 和 h u t 等连词不能够同时用在一个句子当中。 f. 例 : Although the crime rate is falling in many parts o f the world, but violent crimes are constantly rampant. ( 错误 o although 和 b u t 不能同时用于一个句子。) Although the crime rate is falling in many parts o f the world, violent crimes are constantly rampant. ( 正确。蚤然在世界上很多地方犯罪率在下降,但暴力犯罪仍然是非常猖獗的。) S . 用词避免累赞,同义词或近义词最好不要同时出现。 M : Teamwork is indispensable, essential and crucial i f you are not an experienced learner or worker. ( 错误 c indispensable、essentia丨和cru cia l词 义 相 近 ,造成句意重复。) Teamwork is indispensable if you are not an experienced learner or worker. ( 正确 s 如果你不是一个经验丰富的学习者或工作者,那么团队合作是至关重要的。) 三、时态、语态使用错误 a. 情态动 ịpj< can, could, must, need, may,in iy lit 等 等 ) 1 . 注意情态动词的区_別 。 一般意义 情态动词 表示推测的意义 can ! could “ 有能力 ” “ 可能” should / ought to “ 应该 ” “ 很可能 ” must " 必须 ” “ 必定会 ” w ill i would “ 有意愿” “ 以后会 ” may / might “ 可以 ” ‘‘ 可能 ” 1 十 } 2 . 情态动词后面加动 i n l 原 形 。 例 1:This trend can persisted for years. ( 错 误 。情态动词后面只加动词原形 。) This trend can persist for years. ( 正确。这个潮流能够持续很久。) M 2 :Clothes for travel should was lightweight and practical. ( 错 误 。情 态 动 词 后 的 b e 动词应州原形。) Clothes for travel should be lightweight and practical. ( 正确。旅游用的衣服应该轻便和实用。) I>ẵ 助 动 词 ,主 要 有 :(lo (d "e s ,did ),be (am , is, are, was, were ),have( lias ,had), shall (should), w ill (w o uld) 1 . 助 动 词 be(am, is, are, was, were >/|丨的动词不能楚联形 ,一定要是动词的现在分同或者过去 分词形式。 例 : The budget o f a country should be balance each year. (錯误 3 b e 动 词 后 不 可 以 加 balance 的动词席形。) The budget o f a country should be balanced each year. ( 正确。 国家每年都必须平衡预算 2 . 助动词可以和实义动词组合成以下几种时 态 : 一 现在 过 Ẩ. 将来 过去 般时态 进行时态 d o / does 完成时态 am / are / is doing 完成进行时态 has / have has / have done did was / were been done had clone had been doing sh all! w ill sh a ll! w ill doing shall / w ill shall / w ill do should / would 将来 be doing should; would should / would do 1 have done be doing have been doing should / would have done have been doing 儿种常 JT1时态的冈別 特点 例句 说话时动作的情况 正 在 进 行 ,还 没 结 朿 《暂 说话时动作正在进行 y The builders are building a 时的情况L house. 一 般 现 在 吋 重 复 的 动 作 ,或者经常的 说 话 的 时 候 米 必 在 进 Builders build houses for ____ 动作 ( 永久 的 情 况 )。 行这个动作 。 — 现在完成时过去某个时间发生的动 说 话 的 时 候 很 动 others. She has read this book. 作 ,或过 去开始发生一立 作 已 经 结 束 (甚至早已 持续到现在仍未结束的 结 束 ) ,01冇 吋 能 仍 在 动 作 ,强调动作的结果和 进 行 a ____________ I 影 响 。 , I j 例句 说话时动作的情况 特点 现在完成进 现 在 完 成 进 行 时 表 示 过 说 话 *的 时 候 动 作 巳 经 She has been reading this 行时 去 某 一 吋 刻 之 前 开 始 的 开 始 ,还没有结柬。 book. 动作或状态一直延续到 过 去 某 一 时 刻 (强调动作 本身)。 一般过去时 强 调 过 去 发 生 的 动 作 或 说 话 的 时 候 动 作 已 经 She was a teacher ten years 行 为 ;过去的动作和现在 结 束 ;这个动作对现在 ago. 没联系。 的影响不得而知。 Ỉ 例 : This incident rcflccted the decline o f team sports in today’s universities. ( 错误。一般过去时强调过去发生的动作,不强调该动作对现在产生的影 响 ;应该用一 般现在时或现在完成时。) This incident reflects the decline o f team sports in today's universities. ( 正确。这个事件反映出在当今大学里团体体育的衰落。) C . 有些句子的谓语动词由助动词(或情态动词) 与实义动词构成,以构成一定的语态或时态 . 例 : Obesity has a problem to most Americans for decadcs. ( 错误 3 has 可以作实义动词,意为 “ 有 ” ,也 可 以作 助动 词,和实义动词构成完成时态。 根据 句 意,has 在本句显然应该是一个助动词,需要和一个动词的过去分词构成动词的 完成时态,所以这个句子缺一个主动词 b e 的过去 分词 been。) Obesity has been a problem to moat Americans for dccades. ( 正确。几十年 来 , 肥胖对于大部分美国人来说一直是一个问题 c ) d . 动词的语态要分清主动和被动。 伽J 1 :Trade is consisted o f the exchange o f goods and LhaL o f services. ( 错误 。consist o f 用于主动语态。〉 Trade consists o f the exchange o f goods and that o f services. ( 正确 3 贸易由产品的交换和服务的交换组成。) 例 2 :Consumer confidence w ill improve, which is crucial to an economic recovery. ( 错误。消费者信心应该是被提高。) Consumer confidence w ill be improved, which is crucial to an economic recovery. ( 正确 c 消费者信心将会被提高,这对经济复苏是至关重要的 e . 如果谓语动词是由动介或动副短语构成且位于句尾,那么后面的介词或者副词不能够省略。 例 : A t the nursing home, elders can be well cared. ( 错误。c a rc 当“ 照顾 ” 讲为不及物动词,应 该 用 care fo r 表达。) A t the mirsing home, elders can be well cared for. ( 正确。在疗养院 里,老人可以得到很好的照顾 o) 四、前后不一致 动名词和不定式作主语的时候谓语动词用单数, 例 1 :Raising standards o f literacy are the government’s priority. ( 措误 c 句子的主语是 raising standards,而 不 是 standards。) Raising standards o f literacy is the government’s priority. ( 正确。提高群众文化素质是政府的首要任务。) fỹ!j 2 :To rear a child alone are challenging to any parent. ( 错 误 3 主语是 to rear a child alonec ) To rear a child alone is challenging to any parent. ( 正确。独立抚养一个小孩对于任何父母都是有挑战性的。〕 当主语后跟着 w ith, together wiUi,coupled w ith, combined w ith, as well as, like 等词引导的短 语 谓 语 Í 词的数跟前面主语的 .数 4 持一致 . M : Overworking, coupled with poor diet, lead to physical degeneration. ( 错误 D 主 语 是 overworking, 不可数名词,谓语动词应谊用单数 。) Overworking, coupled with poor diet, leads to physical degeneration. ( 正确 c 工作过度,再加上不好的饮食,会导致体质下降 不定代词 anylim ly ,anything, everyhody, every tilin g , nobody, nollũn(ị. somebody, something, each, none 等 作 主 语 》谓语动词用单数 例 : Even i f somebody fall sick, everything go on as usualẳ ( 错误 3 somebody 和 everything 作 主 语 ,谓语动词都应该用单数。) Even i f somebody falls sick, everything goes on as usual. ( 正确。即便有人病了,一切还是照 :f 进行。) neHhe丨 •.-.nor...或 者 引 导 主 语 的 时 候 ,谓语动词的数视邻近动词的那个主语而定 定语从句中动词的数应该与先行词的数保持一致 fỹij : Parenting,which are a strcssfi.il job, has been increasingly valued by society. ( 错误 3 先 行 词 是 parenting 这个不可数名词,从句谓 语动 词应 该用 is 。) Parenting, which is a stressful job, has been increasingly valued by society. ( 正确 c 父母教育这个很有压力的工作,已经逐渐被社会所重视。) I. 由 what, whether, how, that, w h e re 等词引导主语从句,主句的谓语动词用单数 Í列: How we can cope with massive technological change ill the 21 sLcentury are an intereyling issue. ( 错误。h o w 引导的主语从句后,谓语动词用单数 J How we can cope w ith massive technological change in the 21 St century is an interesting issue. ( 正确 3 如 何 处 理 2 ] 世纪的大规模 4支术变化是一件有趣的事情 U u *m u n h e ro í+ 名词的复数,后面谓语动词用单 数 ; a num ber of + 名词的复数,后面谓语动 词用复 数 ;ahuge am (nm t0f + 不可数名词,后面谓语动词用单数 M: A significant number o f young people has been leaving the countryside for urban areas / ( 錯误。谓语动词应该用复数。) A significant number o f young people have been leaving the countryside for urban areas. ( 正确。大量的年轻人已经离开郊区到城市。) 五 、谓语动词使用错误 a . 及物动词后一定要加名词或蓄名词性质的成分作宾语,构成主 吾十谓语动词十宾语的基本句 i 型 ;否则就是错误的」 例 : I w ill discuss in some detail. ( 错误。discuss是及物动词。) 【w ill discuss this topic in some detail. ( 正琐。我会比较详细地讨论这个话题 c ) b . 不及物动词后不能直接加任何名词或者名词性的词语作宾语,如 果 要 加 宾 语 ,则要加介 词 ; 不及物动词没有被动语态 例 I :The accident was sim ilar to one that was happened last year. (4 皆误3 happen 是不及物动词,不能用被动语态 The accident was sim ilar to one that happened last year. ( 正确。这个事故和去年发生的一个 ‘ 故类似 。) 例 2: I disagree many points made by the supporters o f globalisation. ( 错误。disagree 是不及物动词,不能直接加宾语 points。) * I disagree with many points made by the supporters o f globalisation. ( 正确。我不同意全球化支持者提出的很多观点 c) C . 如果谓语动词是动词词组 (phrasal v e r b ) ,这时候也要分辨动词词组是及物还是不及物,从 而判断是否有被动语 态 : 常用的不及物动词词组有 depend on, rely on,survive on, arise from , stem from , hclcmg to, consist of ,等等 例 I :Many museums and libraries are depended entirely on donations from the public. ( 错误 。depend o n 是不及物动词词组,不能用被动语态。) Many museums and libraries depend entirely on donations from the public. ( 正确。很多博物馆和图书馆完全依赖社会的捐款 。) 例 2: A successful organisation should not be consisted entirelv o f older people. ( 错误 。consist o f 是不及物动词词组,不能用被动语态。) A successful organisation should not consist entirely o f older people. (正确。一个成功的企业不应该完全由老年人组成。 ) d . 有一些物动词后面常跟双宾语,构成主语 + 谓语动词 + 双宾语的基本句型(罾 如 b rin id c n y , grant, rend, show 等 等 ) 例 : We should not deny children that they have the opportunity to study what they like. ( 银误。deny 后而可以跟双宾语 1 ) We should not deny children the opportunity to study what they like. (正确。我们不应该否决让孩子们拥有学习自己所喜欢的东西的机会 k e . 有一些不及物动词后面跟宾语和宾语补足语,构成主语 + 谓语动词 + 宾语+ 宾语补足语的基本 句 型 。注 意 :make, have, le i 这三个感官动词后面跟的宾语补足语常用不加 t o 的动词不定式, 例 1 :This photograph makes me to look about 60. ( 播 误 。to 是多余的 o) This photograph makes me look about 60. ( 正确。这照片让我看起来像是 6 0 岁。) 例 2 :Whether we like it or not, our families shape our lives and make us to be what we are. ( 错 误 。to b e 是多余的 D) Whether we like it or not, our families shape our lives and make US what we arc. ( 正确。不管我们是否喜欢,我们的家庭决定我们的生活,让我们成为现在的自己。) f ễ 系动词后面接表语,构成主语 + 系动词 + 表语的基本 句型 。有一些实义动词也可以作半系动 词 。判断是否是半系动词主要是看其后面是否可以跟形容词作表语,如 果可 以跟 形容 词,一 般都是半系动词,比 如 sccm ,look, get, stay, re m a in 等 , 1 . 副词不能作表语,形容词则可以。 例 : Cycling is beneficially to our health. ( 错误。b c n c fid a lly 是 副 词 ,不能作表语 c ) Cycling is beneficial to our health. ( 正确。骑车对我们的健康有益。) 2 . 系动词一般不用被动。 M: Most children are seemed to be better ai remembering bad habits, instead o f good ones. ( 错误。seem 在此是半系动词,不能用于被动语 i 。) Most children seem to be better at remembering bad habits, instead o f good ones. ( 正确。大部分小孩看来都比较容易记得坏 k 习惯,而不是好习惯。) 六 、词性理解错误 a . 可数名词和不可数名词 1 . 单数可数名同前一定要加限定 词 ;对不可数名词则无此约朿。 Í列; Computer is a machine for collecting, processing and presenting information. ( 错 误 computer是单数可数名词,且在此处表示一类,故要加不定冠词。) A computer is a machine for collecting, processing and presenting iníbriĩialion. ( 正确。 电脑是用来收集、处理和发布信息的机器。) 2 . 有 一 些 词 或 者 短 语 后 而 要 加 复 数 可 数 名 同 (例 如 a ibw ,few, a variety of, various, other, numerous, a number of, different, one of, many 等 )o 伊j ; Smoking cessation is one o f the likely factor that contribute to the development o f obesity. ( 错误 。one o f 后而要加复数名词。) Smoking cessation is one o f the likely factors that contribute to the development o f obesity. ( 正确。停止抽烟是可能导致肥胖症的一个因素 c) 3 . 有一些同或者短语后面要加单数可数名同 ( 例 如 any other, another, each, neither, either) c 例 : Many teenagers begin smoking habits due to peer pressure but not for any other reasons. ( 错误 。any other 后不可以跟复数名词。) Many teenagers begin smoking habits due to peer pressure but not for any other reason. ( 正确。很多十几岁的年轻人出于同伴的压力而开始抽烟,而不是因为其他原因 0) 4 . 有一些词或者短语后面要加不可数名同 ( 例 如 a little ,little , m uch 等 ) D 例 : Little progresses have been made towards tackling poverty. ( 错误。liu le 后不能加可数复数名词。) Little progress has been made towards tackling poverty. ( 正确。在解决贫困问题上,目前的进展甚) 跋。) 5 . 当 主 语 被 some/any,a proportion of, a m ajority o f 等 修 饰 的 时 候 ,谓语的数要与主语的数保 持致。 f列: In most developed countries a high proportion o f the population now enters higher education at some time in their lives. ( 錯误。在 这 里 population 是 “ 人们 ” 的 意 思 ,为复教 含义 ,故谓语动词应该用复数。) In most developed countries a high proportion o f the population now enter higher education at some time in their lives, ( 正确。在大部分的发达国家,现在很大比例的人都会在他们人生的某个阶段开始接受 高等教育。) 1> . 冠词 <冠词分为不定冠词 a 或 者 a n , 和 定 冠 词 the) 1 . 有一些形容词前面常加定冠词(比 如 only , w ry “ 恰好 ” ,same 等)。 Í列: People with same experience should be paid same. ( 错误。same前 要 加 the o) People w ith the same experience should be paid the same. ( 正确。经验相同的人工资应该相同。) 2 . 序数词和形容词最高级前要加定冠词。 伊j 1:Tourism has become the top earner o f foreign currency for many countries since Late twentieth century. ( 错误。twendeth 这 个 序 数 词 前 要 用 the。) Tourism has become the top earner o f foreign currency for many countries since the late twentieth century. ( 正确。从 2 0 世 纪 后 期 开 始 ,旅游业已经成为很多国家赚取外汇的首要手段。) m 2 :The cigarcttc is most common method o f smoking tobacco. ( 错误 。most com m on 为最高级,之 前 应 加 the。) The cigarette is the most common method o f smoking tobacco. ( 正确。纸烟是吸食烟草的最普遍方式。) 3. unique, university, union, European 等 词 的 第 一 音 节 为 辅 音 [ ju :],不 定 冠 词 应 该 用 a ; 而 honour等单词的第一个音节为元音,因此小定冠阏要用 an。 M : An university is an institution where students study for deurees. ( 错误。university 前 不 能 加 an。) A university is an institution where students study for degrees. ( 正确。 大学是学生通过学习获得学位的地方。) : • 介词 1 . 介词后不能跟句子 1 注意興与连词的冈別。 比较容易被误用为连词的介词或者介词短语有 despite, in spite of, during, because o f 等 。 Í列: Many smokers are unw illing to cease smoking despite they have knowledge o f ill health effects. ( 錯误 ở despite 是 介 词 , 后不能 Ẳ 接跟句子 。 ) Many smokers are unw illing to cease smoking despite their knowledge o f ill health effects, ( 正确 D 很多抽烟者不愿意停止抽烟,尽管他们知道这有害健康 Õ) 2. to 在 句 子 中 可 能 是 介 词 ( 需要加名词或者具备名词性质的内容) ,也可能是动词不定式符 号 D 要根掘凤-体情况注意 E 分 。譬 如 说 ,在 contribute to, lead to, pay attention to, give rise lo 等 同组中,to 都是介词。 例 : Public disorder can lead to damage a country’s economy. ( 错误。to 在 这里作 介词 ,后面不能跟动词。) Public disorder can lead to a country’s economic crisis. ( 正确。社会的无秩序状态可能导致一个国家的经济灾难。) 3 . 有一些同既可以作介词也可以作连拘 ( 跟 句 子 ) ,比 如 for,since, aiter,before 等 。 (ỹij: Traditional buildings arc desired sometimes, for the simple reason is that they are o f commercial and cultural values. ( 错 误 。fo r 在这里是介词,不是连 词 ,后面不能加句子。) Traditional buildings are desired sometimes, for (he simple reason that they are o f commercial and cultural values. 〔正确 3 传统的建筑有时候是受人喜愛的,因为一个简单的原因— — 它们有经济和文化 价 值 3) 4 . 有些介同的用法是固定的,对于这种情况,考生必须牢记。 例 : Most children do not feel it necessary to conform with rules. ( 错 误 。confirm — 般 和 t o 连用 c ) Most children do not feel il necessary to conform to rules. ( 正确。大部分小孩不觉得有遵守规则的必 要 :) cl. 动词和非谓语动词 1 . 不定式短语可以 作后 置定 语修 饰一 个名 同或 者代 同(常和这个洛同或荇代同在逻辑上形 成动宾关系,此时如果不定式短语中的动同是不及物动词,需加上相 tò 的介词。 例 : The rise o f single parenthood is d ifficult for any society to deal. ( 错 误 to deal修 饰 the rise o f single parenthood, 和后者形成动宾关系必领加介詞 w ith : ) The rise o f single parenthood is difficult for any society to deal with. ( 正确。单身父母的增多对于任何社会来说都是难以解决的问题 。) 2 . 有些动同加不定式作宾语或宾语补足语,如 want, cxpcct, cncourage, advise, persuade, cause, urge, force 等 0 例 : The aim o f this campaign is to encourage young people be responsible for their driving. ( 错误 。encourage sb. to do sth . 是固定搭配,原 句 缺 不 定 式 符 号 tOo) The aim o f this campaign is to encourage young people to be responsible for their driving. ( 正确 Q 这个沽动的目标是鼓励年轻人对他们的驾驶负责。) 代词 代同的指代错误 主格 宾格 形容词性物主代词 名词性物主代词 Í me my mine you you your yours he him his his she her her hers 1 • it it its its we us our ours they them their theirs 例 : Asking for advice from your fam ily is better than overcoming a problem ourselves. ( 错误;;前 面 是 your fa m ily ,...
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