9 Religious Studies 100 Buddhism Outline 1. Introduction : Buddhism and Hinduism: - share some basic concepts, e.g., karma , samsara , etc.. - different ideas between the two: Brahman and Atman in Hinduism; but non- permanency in Buddhism; and Buddhist concept of Nirvana , etc. 2 . Sakyamun i , the sage of the Sakya
Clan, the Buddha and the beginning of Buddhism - Sakyamuni – his original name: Siddhartha Gautama (about 563 BC E), the prince of a small country - his life, born in Lumbini Grove (at the border of India and Nepal today) - his enlightenment at Bodhgaya - his first sermon in Deer Park, Banaras - The Four Noble Truths : Dukkha – all of life is suffering tanha – the cause of suffering is craving tanhakkhaya – the cessation of craving
magga – overcome suffering is the Eightfold Path, the “ middle way ” 3 . The development of Buddhism after the Buddha - Buddhist scriptures : The Tripitaka – “ The Three Baskets ” : The Vinaya Pitaka The Sutta (s ū tra) Pitaka
The Abhidhamma (Abhidharma) Pitaka - King A ś oka - Two major philosophical systems in Indian Buddhism a . The Madhyamika system – founder: Nagarjuna, about the 2 nd century no ego, no soul nothing is permanent all existences are empty of absolute reality b . The Yogacara
system – fo unders Asanga and Vasubandu about the 4 th century The individual mind and its reflections of the phenom enal world are not real Consciousness works and forms the impressions of the world The ultimate reality is a void - The “ three jewels: ” The Buddha, the dharma and the sangha 4. Three major forms of Buddhism A. The Theravadin Buddhism :
“ The School of Elders ” - the areas that it developed - its main teachings (besides those they share with other Buddhists): the concept of Arhat the concept of “ two bodies ” of the Buddha self-efforts for his/her own liberation Jataka literature – karma and samsara The Future Buddha Maitreya
B. The Mahayana Buddhism : ” The Great Vehicle ” - the areas that it developed 10 - Its main teachings (besides those they share with others) the concept of Bodhisattva the concept of “ three bodies ” of the Buddha Buddha nature is in every living being innumerable Buddhas and Bodhisattvas its attitude towards lay people - Mahayana Buddhism in China (or Chinese Buddhism)
Major sects: Tian-tai Ji ng - tu (Pure land) – Buddha Amitabha Chan – two major branches: Sudden Enlightenment and Gradua l Enlightenment The Goddess of Chinese Buddhism – Guan Yin , Bodhisattva of Mercy - Mahayana Buddhism in Japan (Japanese Buddhism) - All the major Chinese Buddhist sects have been ado pted by Japanese:
Tian-tai (Chinese) → Tendai (Japanese) Jing- tu (Chinese → Jodo (Japanese) Chan (Chinese) → Zen (Japanese) Plus , t here are two more sects popular in Japan: Shingon (started in China, called “ Chenyan ”
), the “ True Word ” Nichiren Buddhism, started in the 13 th century, formed in Japan C. Tibetan Buddhism ,
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