Chapter 14 – Population & Urban Life - Study guide

Chapter 14 – Population & Urban Life - Study guide -...

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Chapter 14 – Population & Urban Life - Study guide You should be familiar with the following terms and concepts, and be able to apply them to examples: - Demography- the study of human population •FROM 200,000 YEARS B.C. UNTIL AROUND 2,000 B.C.E. THE HUMAN POPULATION GREW TO 20 MILLION. BY 1 C.E. = 200 million •THE CURRENT WORLD POPULATION IS: –7.5 BILLION PERSONS, GROWING 80 - 100 MILLION PERSONS ANNUALLY •DEMOGRAPHY –INTERESTED IN CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF GROWTH –LET’S EXAMINE SOME OF THE DISCIPLINE’S MORE BASIC CONCEPTS - Fertility rates •FERTILITY IS THE INCIDENCE OF CHILDBEARING IN A SOCIETY’S POPULATION –“FECUNDITY” IS THE POTENTIAL FOR CHILDBEARING •CRUDE BIRTH RATE –THE NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS IN A GIVEN YEAR FOR EVERY THOUSAND PEOPLE IN A POPULATION •“CRUDE” BECAUSE IT TAKES INTO ACCOUNT EVERYBODY, NOT JUST WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE - Mortality rates •CRUDE DEATH RATE –NUMBER OF DEATHS IN A YEAR FOR EVERY 1,000 PERSONS, # of deaths/population times 1,000 •INFANT MORTALITY RATES –NUMBER OF DEATHS AMONG INFANTS UNDER ONE YEAR FOR EACH 1,000 LIVE BIRTHS •LIFE EXPECTANCY –AVERAGE LIFE SPAN FOR MALES AND FEMALES (1992: 73 FOR MALES, 79 FOR FEMALES) –(2016: 77.4 FOR MALES, 82.2 FOR FEMALES) - Migration - Sex Ratio •SEX RATIO –NUMBER OF MALES COMPARED TO NUMBER OF FEMALES •IN THE UNITED STATES –THERE ARE APPROXIMATELY 96 MALES TO 100 FEMALES BECAUSE WOMEN USUALLY
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  • Fall '19
  • Demography, World population, Mechanical and Organic Solidarity

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