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Unformatted text preview: 155095F 2018−04 Processes Stick (SMAW) Welding Guidelines For Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) For product information, Owner’s Manual translations, and more, visit TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1 − SAFETY PRECAUTIONS - READ BEFORE USING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1. Symbol Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2. Arc Welding Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3. Additional Symbols For Installation, Operation, And Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4. California Proposition 65 Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5. Principal Safety Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6. EMF Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 2 − PRINCIPLES OF SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 3 − SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW) PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1. Typical Stick Welding Set-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2. Electrode And Amperage Selection Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3. Striking An Arc − Scratch Start Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4. Striking An Arc − Tapping Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5. Positioning Electrode Holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6. Electrode Movement During Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7. Conditions That Affect Weld Bead Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8. Poor Weld Bead Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9. Good Weld Bead Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10. Typical Weld Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11. Welding Groove (Butt) Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12. Welding Tee Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13. Welding Lap Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14. Welding Horizontal Beads And Groove (Butt) Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15. Welding Vertical Beads And Groove (Butt) Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16. Welding Vertical Tee Joints And Lap Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17. Welding Overhead Groove (Butt) Joints And Tee Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18. Weld Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 4 − WELDING TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1. Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2. Excessive Spatter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3. Incomplete Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4. Lack Of Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5. Excessive Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6. Burn-Through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7. Waviness Of Bead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8. Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 12 13 14 15 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 SECTION 1 − SAFETY PRECAUTIONS - READ BEFORE USING som 2018−01 7 Protect yourself and others from injury — read, follow, and save these important safety precautions and operating instructions. 1-1. Symbol Usage DANGER! − Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. The possible hazards are shown in the adjoining symbols or explained in the text. Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury. The possible hazards are shown in the adjoining symbols or explained in the text. NOTICE − Indicates statements not related to personal injury. . Indicates special instructions. This group of symbols means Warning! Watch Out! ELECTRIC SHOCK, MOVING PARTS, and HOT PARTS hazards. Consult symbols and related instructions below for necessary actions to avoid the hazards. 1-2. Arc Welding Hazards The symbols shown below are used throughout this manual to call attention to and identify possible hazards. When you see the symbol, watch out, and follow the related instructions to avoid the hazard. The safety information given below is only a summary of the more complete safety information found in the Safety Standards listed in Section 1-5. Read and follow all Safety Standards. Only qualified persons should install, operate, maintain, and repair this equipment. A qualified person is defined as one who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, has successfully demonstrated ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project and has received safety training to recognize and avoid the hazards involved. During operation, keep everybody, especially children, away. ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill. Touching live electrical parts can cause fatal shocks or severe burns. The electrode and work circuit is electrically live whenever the output is on. The input power circuit and machine internal circuits are also live when power is on. In semiautomatic or automatic wire welding, the wire, wire reel, drive roll housing, and all metal parts touching the welding wire are electrically live. Incorrectly installed or improperly grounded equipment is a hazard. D Do not touch live electrical parts. D Wear dry, hole-free insulating gloves and body protection. D Insulate yourself from work and ground using dry insulating mats or covers big enough to prevent any physical contact with the work or ground. D Do not use AC weld output in damp, wet, or confined spaces, or if there is a danger of falling. D Use AC output ONLY if required for the welding process. D If AC output is required, use remote output control if present on unit. D Additional safety precautions are required when any of the following electrically hazardous conditions are present: in damp locations or while wearing wet clothing; on metal structures such as floors, gratings, or scaffolds; when in cramped positions such as sitting, kneeling, or lying; or when there is a high risk of unavoidable or accidental contact with the workpiece or ground. For these conditions, use the following equipment in order presented: 1) a semiautomatic DC constant voltage (wire) welder, 2) a DC manual (stick) welder, or 3) an AC welder with reduced open-circuit voltage. In most situations, use of a DC, constant voltage wire welder is recommended. And, do not work alone! D Disconnect input power or stop engine before installing or servicing this equipment. Lockout/tagout input power according to OSHA 29 CFR 1910.147 (see Safety Standards). D Properly install, ground, and operate this equipment according to its Owner’s Manual and national, state, and local codes. D Always verify the supply ground − check and be sure that input power cord ground wire is properly connected to ground terminal in disconnect box or that cord plug is connected to a properly grounded receptacle outlet. D When making input connections, attach proper grounding conductor first − double-check connections. D Keep cords dry, free of oil and grease, and protected from hot metal and sparks. D Frequently inspect input power cord and ground conductor for damage or bare wiring – replace immediately if damaged – bare wiring can kill. D Turn off all equipment when not in use. D Do not use worn, damaged, undersized, or repaired cables. D Do not drape cables over your body. D If earth grounding of the workpiece is required, ground it directly with a separate cable. D Do not touch electrode if you are in contact with the work, ground, or another electrode from a different machine. D Do not touch electrode holders connected to two welding machines at the same time since double open-circuit voltage will be present. D Use only well-maintained equipment. Repair or replace damaged parts at once. Maintain unit according to manual. D Wear a safety harness if working above floor level. D Keep all panels and covers securely in place. D Clamp work cable with good metal-to-metal contact to workpiece or worktable as near the weld as practical. D Insulate work clamp when not connected to workpiece to prevent contact with any metal object. D Do not connect more than one electrode or work cable to any single weld output terminal. Disconnect cable for process not in use. D Use GFCI protection when operating auxiliary equipment in damp or wet locations. SIGNIFICANT DC VOLTAGE exists in inverter welding power sources AFTER removal of input power. D Turn off unit, disconnect input power, and discharge input capacitors according to instructions in Manual before touching any parts. HOT PARTS can burn. D Do not touch hot parts bare handed. D Allow cooling period before working on equipment. D To handle hot parts, use proper tools and/or wear heavy, insulated welding gloves and clothing to prevent burns. 155095 Page 1 FUMES AND GASES can be hazardous. Welding produces fumes and gases. Breathing these fumes and gases can be hazardous to your health. D Keep your head out of the fumes. Do not breathe the fumes. D Ventilate the work area and/or use local forced ventilation at the arc to remove welding fumes and gases. The recommended way to determine adequate ventilation is to sample for the composition and quantity of fumes and gases to which personnel are exposed. D If ventilation is poor, wear an approved air-supplied respirator. D Read and understand the Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) and the manufacturer’s instructions for adhesives, coatings, cleaners, consumables, coolants, degreasers, fluxes, and metals. D Work in a confined space only if it is well ventilated, or while wearing an air-supplied respirator. Always have a trained watchperson nearby. Welding fumes and gases can displace air and lower the oxygen level causing injury or death. Be sure the breathing air is safe. D Do not weld in locations near degreasing, cleaning, or spraying operations. The heat and rays of the arc can react with vapors to form highly toxic and irritating gases. D Do not weld on coated metals, such as galvanized, lead, or cadmium plated steel, unless the coating is removed from the weld area, the area is well ventilated, and while wearing an air-supplied respirator. The coatings and any metals containing these elements can give off toxic fumes if welded. ARC RAYS can burn eyes and skin. Arc rays from the welding process produce intense visible and invisible (ultraviolet and infrared) rays that can burn eyes and skin. Sparks fly off from the weld. D Wear an approved welding helmet fitted with a proper shade of filter lenses to protect your face and eyes from arc rays and sparks when welding or watching (see ANSI Z49.1 and Z87.1 listed in Safety Standards). D Wear approved safety glasses with side shields under your helmet. D Use protective screens or barriers to protect others from flash, glare and sparks; warn others not to watch the arc. D Wear body protection made from durable, flame−resistant material (leather, heavy cotton, wool). Body protection includes oil-free clothing such as leather gloves, heavy shirt, cuffless trousers, high shoes, and a cap. WELDING can cause fire or explosion. Welding on closed containers, such as tanks, drums, or pipes, can cause them to blow up. Sparks can fly off from the welding arc. The flying sparks, hot workpiece, and hot equipment can cause fires and burns. Accidental contact of electrode to metal objects can cause sparks, explosion, overheating, or fire. Check and be sure the area is safe before doing any welding. D Remove all flammables within 35 ft (10.7 m) of the welding arc. If this is not possible, tightly cover them with approved covers. D Do not weld where flying sparks can strike flammable material. D Protect yourself and others from flying sparks and hot metal. D Be alert that welding sparks and hot materials from welding can easily go through small cracks and openings to adjacent areas. D Watch for fire, and keep a fire extinguisher nearby. D Be aware that welding on a ceiling, floor, bulkhead, or partition can cause fire on the hidden side. 155095 Page 2 D Do not cut or weld on tire rims or wheels. Tires can explode if heated. Repaired rims and wheels can fail. See OSHA 29 CFR 1910.177 listed in Safety Standards. D Do not weld on containers that have held combustibles, or on closed containers such as tanks, drums, or pipes unless they are properly prepared according to AWS F4.1 and AWS A6.0 (see Safety Standards). D Do not weld where the atmosphere can contain flammable dust, gas, or liquid vapors (such as gasoline). D Connect work cable to the work as close to the welding area as practical to prevent welding current from traveling long, possibly unknown paths and causing electric shock, sparks, and fire hazards. D Do not use welder to thaw frozen pipes. D Remove stick electrode from holder or cut off welding wire at contact tip when not in use. D Wear body protection made from durable, flame−resistant material (leather, heavy cotton, wool). Body protection includes oil-free clothing such as leather gloves, heavy shirt, cuffless trousers, high shoes, and a cap. D Remove any combustibles, such as a butane lighter or matches, from your person before doing any welding. D After completion of work, inspect area to ensure it is free of sparks, glowing embers, and flames. D Use only correct fuses or circuit breakers. Do not oversize or bypass them. D Follow requirements in OSHA 1910.252 (a) (2) (iv) and NFPA 51B for hot work and have a fire watcher and extinguisher nearby. D Read and understand the Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) and the manufacturer’s instructions for adhesives, coatings, cleaners, consumables, coolants, degreasers, fluxes, and metals. FLYING METAL or DIRT can injure eyes. D Welding, chipping, wire brushing, and grinding cause sparks and flying metal. As welds cool, they can throw off slag. D Wear approved safety glasses with side shields even under your welding helmet. BUILDUP OF GAS can injure or kill. D Shut off compressed gas supply when not in use. D Always ventilate confined spaces or use approved air-supplied respirator. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS (EMF) can affect Implanted Medical Devices. D Wearers of Pacemakers and other Implanted Medical Devices should keep away. D Implanted Medical Device wearers should consult their doctor and the device manufacturer before going near arc welding, spot welding, gouging, plasma arc cutting, or induction heating operations. NOISE can damage hearing. Noise from some processes or equipment can damage hearing. D Wear approved ear protection if noise level is high. CYLINDERS can explode if damaged. Compressed gas cylinders contain gas under high pressure. If damaged, a cylinder can explode. Since gas cylinders are normally part of the welding process, be sure to treat them carefully. D Protect compressed gas cylinders from excessive heat, mechanical shocks, physical damage, slag, open flames, sparks, and arcs. D Install cylinders in an upright position by securing to a stationary support or cylinder rack to prevent falling or tipping. D Keep cylinders away from any welding or other electrical circuits. D Never drape a welding torch over a gas cylinder. D Never allow a welding electrode to touch any cylinder. D Never weld on a pressurized cylinder − explosion will result. D Use only correct compressed gas cylinders, regulators, hoses, and fittings designed for the specific application; maintain them and associated parts in good condition. D Turn face away from valve outlet when opening cylinder valve. Do not stand in front of or behind the regulator when opening the valve. D Keep protective cap in place over valve except when cylinder is in use or connected for use. D Use the proper equipment, correct procedures, and sufficient number of persons to lift, move, and transport cylinders. D Read and follow instructions on compressed gas cylinders, associated equipment, and Compressed Gas Association (CGA) publication P-1 listed in Safety Standards. 1-3. Additional Symbols For Installation, Operation, And Maintenance FIRE OR EXPLOSION hazard. D Do not install or place unit on, over, or near combustible surfaces. D Do not install unit near flammables. D Do not overload building wiring − be sure power supply system is properly sized, rated, and protected to handle this unit. FALLING EQUIPMENT can injure. D Use lifting eye to lift unit only, NOT running gear, gas cylinders, or any other accessories. D Use correct procedures and equipment of adequate capacity to lift and support unit. D If using lift forks to move unit, be sure forks are long enough to extend beyond opposite side of unit. D Keep equipment (cables and cords) away from moving vehicles when working from an aerial location. D Follow the guidelines in the Applications Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (Publication No. 94−110) when manually lifting heavy parts or equipment. OVERUSE can cause OVERHEATING D Allow cooling period; follow rated duty cycle. D Reduce current or reduce duty cycle before starting to weld again. D Do not block or filter airflow to unit. FLYING SPARKS can injure. D Wear a face shield to protect eyes and face. D Shape tungsten electrode only on grinder with proper guards in a safe location wearing proper face, hand, and body protection. D Sparks can cause fires —...
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  • Spring '19
  • Arc welding, Weld, D Do

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