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PSYCH FINAL EXAM!!! Evolution Charles Darwin (1809-1882) o Two disctint ideas about evolution that Darwin linked together: Descent with Modifaction (species change) Natural Selection (engine of change): different traits may offer certain advantages or disadvantages that may impact the survival of the individual and any potential offspring Depends on: o The ability to introduce new traits (mutations) o Most mutations are not advantageous o Disadvantageous traits lead to poor survival o Advantageous traits lead to better survival Variation : individuals with a species differ in physiology and behavior Adaptation : physical or behavioral changes that allow organisms to meet recurring environmental challenges to their survival Homology : similarities due to common ancestry (shared evolutionary history) Analogy : similarities due to design (similar problems have similar solutions) Development Nature and Nurture o Preformation : idea that development involves nothing more than growth; believed the egg contained a tiny version of an adult (homunculus) o Epigenesis : considered new life was shaped from formless matter Vital force : a mystical property that distinguished life from nonlife Process of emergence, not unfolding, in which truly new structures appeared and higher levels of organization o Differentiation Nature : biologically determined maturation produces development change Nurture : experience with the environment produces development change o “Bread Model” : to make a loaf of bread; bread is the predictable outcome that results from development Genes : contribute ingredients (flour, eggs, sugar, etc) Environment : contributes processing (mixing, oven temp, etc) Both have an effect but neither have the unique power to create the final loaf. o Twin Studies One egg : monozygotic/identical twins Two eggs ; dizygotic/fraternal twins o Critical Period : particular experiences are necessary in this period of rapid change o Sensitive Period : period of greater impact Jean Piaget (1896-1980) o Assimilation : perceiving or thinking about new objects in terms of existing knowledge o Accommodation : changing knowledge based on new objects or events o Sensorimotor (0-2 years of age) Object permanence : first part of the object concept to develop
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A-not-B error : looking for a toy under box A even though the experimenter has moved the toy to box B. o
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course PSYCH 31;001 taught by Professor Robinson during the Fall '08 term at University of Iowa.

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