Behaviourism ECDV 110 October 18 (1).pdf

Behaviourism ECDV 110 October 18 (1).pdf - Behaviourism...

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Behaviourism
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Behaviorism Key Ideas Deterministic - The way you act is determined by external stimuli provided by the culture in which you live. Observable - Over time the individual develops a “behavioral repertoire” (Steinberg, 1980) that can be used to predict behavior. Controllable - Desirable behaviors can be brought about by incentives; undesirable behaviors can be eradicated by consequences or punishment.
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Types of Behavioral Conditioning There are two major types of conditioning: 1. Classical conditioning is a technique used in behavioral training in which a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. Next, a previously neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus. Eventually, the previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke the response without the presence of the naturally occurring stimulus. The two elements are then known as the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response.
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2. Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through reinforcements and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. When a desirable result follows an action, the behavior becomes more likely to occur again in the future. Responses followed by adverse outcomes, on the other hand, become less likely to happen again in the future.
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Major Thinkers Who Influenced Behaviorism There are a number of prominent theorists and psychologists who left an indelible mark on behaviorism, including: •Ivan Pavlov •John B. Watson Edward Thorndike B. F. Skinner
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John B. Watson 1878 - 1958
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John B. Watson Watson changed the focus of psychology from introspection, to environmentalism. The principles of learning would account for the largest share of behavioral development and are exercised almost exclusively through environmental learning opportunities provided for children.
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John B. Watson
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