In social science there is a statistical technique called "individual fixed effects" Compares an outcome across time as some factor changes Ex: If we want to know whether having kids makes people happier and more fulfilled we would ask them before they had their first kid and then again after. § ○ Some sociological variables resist fixed effects because they don’t change over time Ex: race § ○ • Mars and Venus Psychologist John Gray argues that men and women differ so fundamentally in their: Values ○ Attitudes ○ Thought Processes ○ Preferences ○ Behavior Patterns ○ That they might as well be from different planets. ► • He also says that men and women don't even speak the same language, but have distinct biologically and psychically driven styles of communication, feeling, and action. • Feminism: a consciousness-raising movement to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life - it structures social relations between people on unequal ground. The underlying belief is that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect Sex: the biological differences that distinguish males from females Sexuality: desire; sexual preference, and sexual identity and behavior Gender: a social position; the set of social arrangements that are built around normative sex categories It’s a collectively defined guidebook that humans use to make distinctions among themselves, to separate one being from another, and to comprehend an otherwise fuzzy mass of individuals. We consistently behave as though women act a certain way that is ○ • Chapter 8: Gender Wednesday, February 27, 2019 2:14 PM
We consistently behave as though women act a certain way that is distinct from the behavior of men, until those behaviors and attitudes become so ingrained they seem inevitable. ○ Sex: A Process in the Making We make sense of much variation between men and women by referring to their biological differences. Behavioral Consequences of Hormones (PMS) ○ Relative Physical Strength of Bodies (regular vs "girl" push ups) ○ Brain Architecture (subsequent rational or irrational action) ○ Chromosomes (XX or XY) ○ • The study of gender boils down to seeing how both nature and nurture overlap, penetrate, and shape each other.
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- Paradoxes of Gender