orp0=1−ρ1−ρm+1.It follows thatpn=1−ρ1−ρm+1ρn,n= 0, ..., m.Note that the above results hold for anyρ≥0 and forρ= 1, we obtain thatpn=1m+ 1,n= 0,1, ..., m.(c) Find the probability that a new packet is lost and the rate at which packets aredropped.

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(d) Using the result of (c), what is the throughput of the system? The throughput isequal to the arrival rate minus the loss rate,i.e.

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(e) Assume thatρm<<1 (when is this the case?), and redo part (b). Whenρm+1<<1,then we havepm≈(1−ρ)ρm.(f) Using Little’s formula, find the expected delay (queuing plus transmission delay) ofa packet that enters the system. Using Little’s formula we have

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