Chapter 6 – Pratical aspects of Memory1.Describe the three concepts covered in previous chapters, and the associated implications for improving memory. Do Demonstration 6.1.For example, in Chapter 3, you learned that divided attention decreases your ability to process information. This guideline is important when you listen to lectures and read yourtextbooks (Chabris & Simon, 2010; deWinstanley & Bjork, 2002). Chapter 3 also noted that people may have problems with saccadic eye movements. For instance, their eyes may frequently move backward to an earlier part of a sentence. Chapter 4 pointed out the limits of working memory. These limits would be relevant when professors speak too quickly or display their detailed PowerPoint slides too briefly. If you encounter this problem, figure out how to respond strategically. You may want to complete the reading assignments before class, to familiarize yourself with the concepts. If the professor makes the slides available before class, study them in advance. When students can use the information for the slides—incorporating additional notes from the lecture—they tend to performbetter on examinations (Marsh & Sink, 2010). Chapter 5 provided much more advice about how to develop effective memory strategies. Let’s consider three of these topics: (1) levels of processing, (2) the encoding- specificity principle, and (3) avoiding overconfidence. Before you begin, however, take a minute to describe each of these strategies, and consider how they could help you study more effectively for your next examinatio1)levels of processing: shows that you will generally recall information more accurately if you process it at a deep level, rather than a shallow level;2)the encoding- specificity principle:states that recall is often better if the context atthe time of encoding matches the context at the time when your retrieval will be tested. 3)avoiding overconfidence:people often believe that they have highly accurate memories about their life experiences. However, even their so-called flashbulb memories usually contain some errors. This area of research suggests that we are often overconfident about our memory skills.
2.Summarize the research on the effect of practice on memory. What is the total time hypothesis? What is the retrieval-practice effect? What is the distributed-practice effect (also known as spaced learning)? What is the testing effect?