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Chapter 11.Define “cognition.” Why is the study of cognitive psychology important?
2.Describe the early history of cognitive psychology, focusingon the contributions of each of the following:a.Wilhelm Wundt: proposed the technique of introspection to study mental processes. Introspection meaning to analyze your own sensations and report it objectively under standardized conditions.b.Hermann Ebbinghaus: first person to study human memory by examining a variety of factors that might influence performance, ex: the amount of time between two presentations of a list of items, utilizing nonsense syllables (ex, DAX) rather than actual words.c.Mary Calkins: reported the recency effect which is described as the observation that our recall is especially accurate for the final items in a series of stimuli. Calkins also suggested that psychologist should study individuals using their cognitive processes in the real world as opposed to laboratories.d.William James: rejected Ebbinghaus research and focusedmore on everyday psychological experiences. Best known for his textbook principles of psychology which discusses in detail, descriptions about people’s everyday experiences. It
oversee’s numerous topics such as perception, attention, memory, understanding, reasoning and the tip of the tongue phenomenone.Frederick Bartlett: conducted his research on human memory and wrote what is considered to be the most influential books in the history of cognitive psychology, Remembering: An experimental and Social study. He also rejected Ebbinghaus’s theory. Bartlett proposed that human memory is an active, constructive process in which we interpret and transform the information we encounter. His work was ignored in the US during the 1930s due to the committement to behaviorism.Comment:The work of Ebbinghaus (1885-1913) is often criticized for its lack of ecological validity, but this criticism is more appropriately directed to those who followed in Ebbinghaus’s footsteps. It is important to recognize that, at the time Ebbinghaus began his research on memory, there was virtually no empirical evidence on the topic. Ebbinghaus’s approach was a reasonable first step in the scientific investigation of memory. Moreover, many of Ebbinghaus’s findings are easily replicated today. For example, Ebbinghaus was the first to report on the phenomenon of overlearning, or the finding that there is additional learning that can be measured, even if a list of items is learned to perfection. Ebbinghaus also reported the classic forgetting curve, in which there is rapid forgetting in the first 24 hours, followed by a plateau

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