Learning objectives 2 1.Explain why firms manage risk 2.Explain the concept, benefits and trends in Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) 3.Identify reasons for ineffective risk management 4.Explain the concept of risk architecture and discuss how it assists an organisation to manage risk 5.Identify and explain risk principles and discuss how they relate to risk management 6.Explain the purpose and contents of a Risk Appetite Statement 7.Explain the following concepts •Risk capacity •Risk tolerance •Risk appetite •Risk culture
Why do firms manage risk?
Risk management involves balancing costs and benefits Accepting risk is necessary for a firm deliver on its objectives. Internal and external factors create uncertainty. The risk of failure in achieving it’s objectives (including remaining financially solvent) carries costs that impact the firm’s value. Financial distress costs include: Øincreased funding costs (debt and equity) and reduce access to capital thereby restricting ability to invest in future profitable investments as they arise Ødiversion of management attention, damage to reputation with customers and stakeholders, failed investments and strategies, lost market share, poor trading terms, fines and penalties, breaches of debt covenants, unexpected changes to business plans and strategies, lack of flexibility and foresight to take opportunities. However, the cost of performing the activity of risk management is significant for a firm: ØDirect costs of the risk management function (e.g. people, data and technology, compliance, audit fees, reporting, etc.) ØIndirect costs arising from the limiting of some potentially profitable activities (i.e. the opportunity cost of foregoing certain investments that are outside risk appetite) 4
Why do firms manage risk? Under the assumption of perfect (i.e. “frictionless”) markets (including no financial distress costs) there is theoretically no shareholder benefit to risk management. BUT, in the real world of transaction and financial distress costs, the most compelling argument for managing financial risks is that bad outcomes can lead to financial distress, and financial distress can be very costly. Large companies have scale and access to information and sophisticated risk management tools that individual investors do not. When companies get into financial trouble, they lose their ability to carry out their strategies effectively and find it more difficult and expensive to conduct their businesses. As a result, the value of a company’s equity todayis reduced by the present value of the expected future costs of financial distress(remember that the share price today values in future expected growth in earnings).