Define “deductive reasoning” and “decision making.” How are they different?
Describe “conditional reasoning” (or “propositional reasoning”). Provide an original
example of conditional reasoning. Define “syllogism,” and provide an example. How
are syllogisms different from conditional reasoning problems?
you begin with some specific premises that are true, and you need
to judge whether those premises allow you to draw a particular conclusion, based on the
principles of logic.
You need to draw some logical conclusions, based on the information
supplied to you.
A deductive-reasoning task provides you with all the information you
need to draw a conclusion. Furthermore, the premises are either true or false, and you
must use the rules of formal logic in order to draw conclusions
we evaluate and choose among several alternatives; we often use three
heuristics, or general strategies, to make decisions. You must assess the information and
choose among two or more alternatives.
Decision making is much more ambiguous then deductive reasoning.
Information may be
missing or contradictory and there is no clear-cut rules that tell us how to proceed from
the information to the conclusions.
You may never know whether your decision was
correct, and you may need to take additional factors into account.
Conditional reasoning task (also called a propositional reasoning task) describes the
relationship between conditions. It is a kind of deductive reasoning task. For example;
rabies is contagious, then a dog that was bitten by a rabid racoon now has rabies. The dog
has rabies. Therefore, this dog was bitten by a rabid racoon
Syllogism consists of two statements that we must assume to be true, plus a conclusion.
Syllogisms refer to quantities, so they use the words all, none, some, and other similar
For example: Some psychology majors are friendly people. Some friendly people are
concerned about poverty. Therefore, some psychology majors are concerned about
In a syllogism, you must judge whether the conclusion is valid, invalid, or indeterminate.
Where as in a conditional reasoning task you must judge only if it is valid or invalid.