11 - Lecture 3/11 Agenda: Overview of historical...

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Lecture 3/11 Agenda: • Overview of historical linguistics • Terms • Reconstruction • Grimm’s Law • History of English Language • Great Vowel Shift • Consonant Changes I. Goals of Historical Linguistics a. Examine changes in a particular language b. Group languages into language families (show how languages are related to one another)…ex: English = Germanic c. Reconstruct the prehistories of language (language change happens in patterned regular ways) ex: assimilation d. Study the history of words (etymology) II. Historical Linguistic Terms a. Proto-languages: the documented or hypothesized parent language from which other languages evolve i. Ex: proto-language for Spanish/French=Latin b. Daughter Languages: languages that diverge from the same parent language c. Sister Languages: Diverge from the same parent at about the same time i. Ex: Latin family tree ii. Ex: classical Latin and vulgar Latin III. How are these family trees formed? a. Comparative Method: Compare variation between language, such as sets of cognates, under the assumption they descended from a single proto- language i. Ex: Germanic and Romance pronouns
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11 - Lecture 3/11 Agenda: Overview of historical...

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