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Unformatted text preview: Linux for S/390 How can Linux exploit the strengths of S/390? What different ways can Linux be installed on S/390? Which Linux applications can run on S/390? Erich Amrehn, Joerg Arndt Dave Bennin, Mark Cathcart Richard Higson, Cliff Laking Richard Lewis, Michael MacIsaac Susan Matuszewski, Eugene Ong Hans Dieter Mertiens, Eric Schabell ibm.com/redbooks SG24-4987-00 International Technical Support Organization Linux for S/390 September 2000 Take Note! Before using this information and the product it supports, be sure to read the general information in Appendix F, “Special notices” on page 501. First Edition (September 2000) This edition applies to Linux for S/390 Marist Version, 2.2.15 and SuSE Linux for S/390 pre-relase distribution. At the time of writing this redbook there was no Linux for S/390 distribution available from TurboLinux. Comments may be addressed to: IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization Dept. HYJ Mail Station P099 2455 South Road Poughkeepsie, NY 12601-5400 When you send information to IBM, you grant IBM a non-exclusive right to use or distribute the information in any way it believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you. © Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2000. All rights reserved. Note to U.S Government Users – Documentation related to restricted rights – Use, duplication or disclosure is subject to restrictions set forth in GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp. Contents Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii The team that wrote this redbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii Comments welcome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvi Chapter 1. Technology and business . . . . . . . . 1.1 The open source revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Technology directions for business innovation 1.3 Edge of Network devices and services . . . . . . 1.4 The Utility Service Provision (USP) . . . . . . . . 1.5 Complexity impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2. Open source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 The GNU Public License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 The IBM Public License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Flourishing through open standards . . . . . . 2.4 The Application Framework for e-business . 2.5 Summarizing open, shared standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . 12 . 13 . 13 . 14 . 14 Chapter 3. Why Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Applications and Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 IBM strategy for Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 An introduction to Linux for S/390 . . . 3.3 Running Linux on S/390 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Communication and connectivity . . . . . . . 3.5 Other device support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6 Linux and S/390 benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Application scenarios with Linux on S/390 3.8 Tools and technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8.1 DB2 Connect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8.2 CICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8.3 IMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8.4 MQ Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8.5 DB2 Universal Database (UDB) . . . . 3.8.6 Tivoli Framework end-point support . 3.8.7 Tivoli Storage Manager Client. . . . . . 3.8.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 . 19 . 22 . 25 . 26 . 28 . 29 . 30 . 30 . 32 . 34 . 34 . 34 . 34 . 34 . 35 . 36 . 37 © Copyright IBM Corp. 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 .2 .4 .4 .7 .9 iii Chapter 4. Linux distributions . . 4.1 What a distribution is . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Announced distributions . 4.1.2 Distribution media. . . . . . 4.1.3 Roll your own . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Linux documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 . 41 . 41 . 42 . 42 . 42 Chapter 5. Native S/390 installation and operation of Linux . . . . . . . . 45 5.1 Assumptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 5.2 Skills and resources required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 5.3 Hardware preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 5.4 The hardware we used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 5.5 Activating Linux for S/390 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 5.5.1 Creating an IPLable tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 5.5.2 Getting the files to your host system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 5.5.3 JCL to create the tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5.6 Using the Hardware Management Console (HMC) to IPL . . . . . . . . . . 57 5.7 Verifying the IPL from tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 5.7.1 IPL messages for Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 5.7.2 Formatting DASD for Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 5.7.3 Upload and customize the new file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 5.7.4 Creating and activating swap space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 5.7.5 Customizing Linux for S/390 configuration files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 5.7.6 Creating a new kernel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 5.7.7 Write IPL information to DASD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 5.7.8 ReIPL with the customized root file system on DASD . . . . . . . . . 80 5.8 Linux for S/390 on a P/390 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 5.8.1 Attempting to install on a P/390 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Chapter 6. VM installation and operation of Linux for S/390 . . . . . . . . 85 6.1 Linux for S/390 in a virtual machine (as a guest of VM) . . . . . . . . . . . 85 6.2 Installing Linux for S/390 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 6.2.1 Installation steps overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 6.2.2 Decide on the install method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 6.2.3 Prepare the virtual machine to run Linux for S/390 . . . . . . . . . . . 90 6.2.4 Prepare the networking environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 6.2.5 Typical connectivity configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 6.2.6 Obtain the binary files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 6.2.7 Copy files to VM and reblock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 6.2.8 Create the initial kernel parameter file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 6.2.9 Boot initial Linux for S/390 kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 6.2.10 Install the root file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 6.2.11 Complete the customization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 iv Linux for S/390 6.3 Installing Marist College binaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 6.3.1 Install method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 6.3.2 Linux for S/390 virtual machine definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 6.3.3 Networking definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 6.3.4 Downloading the binaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 6.3.5 Copying Marist files to VM and reblocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 6.3.6 Creating the kernel parameter file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 6.3.7 Boot the kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 6.3.8 Install the root file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 6.3.9 Complete customization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 6.4 Logging into your Linux for S/390 system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 6.5 3215 driver considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 6.6 IUCV connections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 6.7 Linux for S/390 device files and virtual device numbers . . . . . . . . . . 122 6.8 Operational considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 6.8.1 Starting Linux for S/390 virtual machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 6.8.2 Stopping Linux for S/390 virtual machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 6.8.3 Secondary console interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 6.8.4 Taking backups of Linux for S/390 file systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 6.9 Performance considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 6.9.1 Reducing Linux for S/390 swapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 6.9.2 Virtual machine priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Chapter 7. Installing SuSE Linux on S/390 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 7.1 Types of installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 7.2 System requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 7.2.1 Required hardware features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 7.2.2 Required APARs and fixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 7.2.3 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 7.3 Connection requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 7.3.1 Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 7.3.2 Network connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 7.3.3 The telnet client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 7.3.4 NFS or FTP server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 7.4 IPLing the install system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 7.4.1 IPLing from the VM reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 7.4.2 IPLing from tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 7.4.3 IPLing from the CD-ROM (emulated tape) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 7.4.4 The Load from CDROM or server task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 7.5 Setting the network parameters in Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 7.6 Loading the DASD device driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 7.7 Installing with YaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 7.7.1 Finishing the install when using a CTC network device . . . . . . . 162 v 7.8 Booting the installed system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Chapter 8. Linux for S/390 bootup and shutdown . 8.1 Linux run levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Kernel initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 The init process and run level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 System init and inittab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.2 Basic system initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 . 165 . 168 . 171 . 172 . 174 . 175 Chapter 9. Linux for S/390 administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 9.1 Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 9.1.1 DASD (direct access storage device) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 9.1.2 VM minidisk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 9.1.3 XPRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 9.1.4 Creating a device node with mknod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 9.1.5 Linux for S/390 device node assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 9.2 File system types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 9.2.1 Block size relation between device and file system . . . . . . . . . . 186 9.2.2 The file system table /etc/fstab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 9.2.3 Checking and repairing an ext2 file system: e2fsck. . . . . . . . . . 188 9.3 Linux swap space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 9.3.1 Creating swap spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 9.3.2 Activating and deactivating swap spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 9.3.3 Displaying information on swap spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 9.3.4 Preparing swap space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 9.4 File systems and devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 9.4.1 Formatting a block device: dasdfmt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 9.4.2 Creating a file system: mke2fs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 9.4.3 Accessing a file system: mount. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 9.4.4 Making a device bootable: silo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 9.5 Users and groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 9.5.1 Creating a user account: useradd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 9.5.2 Modifying a user account: usermod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 9.5.3 Deleting a user account: userdel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 9.5.4 Verifying the integrity of the passwd file: pwck . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 9.5.5 Creating a new group: groupadd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 9.5.6 Modifying a group: groupmod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 9.5.7 Deleting a group: groupdel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 9.5.8 Verifying the integrity of the group file: grpck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 9.6 File ownership and access permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 9.7 Changing passwords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 9.8 Shells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 vi Linux for S/390 9.9 System logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.10 Cron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.11 Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM). 9.12 Interactive administrative utilities . . . . . . 9.12.1 Linuxconf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.12.2 YAST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.12.3 YAST2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 . 206 . 207 . 208 . 208 . 208 . 209 Chapter 10. Backup . . . . . . . . . 10.1 The general concept. . . . . . 10.1.1 Backup strategies . . . . 10.2 Native backup commands . 10.2.1 dump/restore . . . . . . . 10.2.2 cpio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.3 tar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 Backup programs and tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 . 211 . 211 . 213 . 214 . 219 . 222 . 224 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 11. System maintenance and upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 11.1 Where to obtain software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 11.2 Overview of upgrade strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 11.3 Software installation with RPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 11.3.1 RPM overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 11.3.2 The RPM database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 11.3.3 Querying package information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 11.3.4 Checking dependencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 11.3.5 Install and update a package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 11.3.6 Post-installation steps for source RPMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 11.3.7 Removing a package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 11.4 Software installation with tar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 11.5 Updating libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 11.5.1 Upgrading shared libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 11.5.2 Resolving incompatibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 11.6 Build and customize the kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 11.6.1 Preparing a second bootable device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 11.6.2 Get the Linux kernel source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 11.6.3 Recompiling the S/390 tool chain (binutils and gcc) . . . . . . . . 243 11.6.4 Preparing /usr/src/linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 11.6.5 Configure and compile the kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 11.6.6 Install object code only (OCO) modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 11.6.7 Activate the new kernel. . . . . . . . . . . . ....
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    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

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    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

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    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

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    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern