SAT_and_GRE_Vocabulary_Study_Guide.pdf - 1 List of 1,000...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 List of 1,000 Common SAT and GRE Vocabulary Words with Latin and Greek Roots Much of the English language is derived from Greek and Latin roots. These roots are found throughout many words on the SAT and GRE vocabulary questions. In order to learn the most amount of words and be able to deduce what unknown words mean on the test, it is important to learn these roots. For instance the root “crypt” means hidden or secret so the word “cryptic” means “puzzling, or secret” Ab-­‐, a-­‐, abs-­‐ away -­‐Abrasive: rough, coarse, harsh Ab: away Ras: scrape, shave Ive: like “The teacher had an abrasive nature and was often harsh in her critiques.” -­‐Abasement: humilation, degradation Ab: away ment: act of ,result “Our coach abased us when we made mistakes on the court” -­‐Abrogate: cancel, deny, repeal Ab: away Rog: ask Ate: to make “Since I found the book cheaper, I abrogated my original order” -­‐Abstain: desist, go without, withdraw Ab: away St: stand “During Ramadan, Muslims abstain from food during the daylight hours” -­‐Abstemious: self denying, sparing in diet Ab: away ous: characterized by “Tina thought she needed to lose weight so she adopted an abstemious diet” -­‐Abdicate: to give up ab: away dict: say, speak ate: to make “The prince didn’t feel qualifed to be king so he abdicated the throne in favor of his little brother” -­‐Abduction: a carrying away of a person against his will ab: away duct: lead ion: act of , state of, result of “The child was thought to be abducted, but it turned out he had just wandered off Copyright © 2016 by BWS Education Consulting, Inc. 2 -­‐Abjure: to recall, recant or repudiate under oath ab: away jur: law, justice “The witness later recanted his statement because they found ouot he was lying” Abrade: to wear away the surface or some part of by friction ab: away rad: scrape, shave “The button’s on Casey’s phone were abraded from constant texting” Abeyance: a state of suspension or temporary inaction ab: away ance: action, process ,state “The committee couldn’t come to a decision so the problem was held in abeyance” Abnormal: not conformed to the ordinary rule or standard ab: away al: relating to “Kelly’s behavoir of blowing off homework was abnormal for a straight A student” Manufacture: the making or producing of anything manu: hand act: do “The company manufactured products for the electronics company” Activate: to cause to function act: do ate: cause, make “The screen lite up because pressing the button activated the computer” Aerial: of pertaining to, or like the air aer: air al: pertaining to “Birds are considered aerial animals” Aeronaut: one who naviagtes the air aero: air naut: ship “The hot air balloon dirver was an aeronaut” Aeronautics: the art or practice of flying aircraft aer: air naut: ship ic: like, pertaining to “Jet pilots must go through aeronautics training.” Aerostat: a balloon or other apparatus floating in or sustained by the air aer: air stat: stationary, still “The helium balloons were aerostat” Agr-­‐ farming Agrarian: pertainng to land Copyright © 2016 by BWS Education Consulting, Inc. 3 agr: farming ian: native of, pertaining to “The agrarian products were sold at the farmer’s market” Ambi-­‐,amphi both, on both sides, around Ambidextrous: having the ability of using both hands ambi: both dextr: right ous: full of “Sam switched easily between his hands while dining showing his ambidextrity” Ambiguous: having a double meaning ambi: both ous: full of “The agreement between the countries was ambiguous and lead to many more conficts” Amphibious: living both on land and in water amphi: both bi: two ous: full of “Since frogs can move between land and sea they are amphibious” Ambul-­‐ walk, move Perambulate: to walk about per: through ambul: walk, move ate: to make “The dog perambulated around the field looking for his frisbee” Ambulate: to walk about ambul: walk, move ate: to make ` “The concerned person ambulated back and forth lost in thought” Ami-­‐ love Amicable: done in a friendly spirit ami: love able: capable of “The papers were signed amicably and the former partners parted as friends” Amity: friendship ami: love ity: state of, quality of “Lisa and Joey were in a state of amity prior to their fight” Pusillanimous: without spirit or bravery sil: quiet, or still amin: life spirit ous: characterized by “The pusillanimous soldier deserted his comrades right before the battle” Animate: to make alive anim: life, spirit Copyright © 2016 by BWS Education Consulting, Inc. 4 ate: to make “The girl was animated as she talked about her favorite comedy” Captivating: to attract and hold attention to capt: take, hold “The painting’s rich colors were captivating and held everyone’s attention” Acceptable: pleasing to the receiver Ac: to, toward Cept: take, hold Able: capable of “The waitress found her large tip very acceptable” Conclusive: putting an end to debate or question especially by reason of irrefutability Con: with, jointly Clus: close Ive: like “The findings of the forensic technician were conclusive, even in court” Credible: believable Cred: believe, trust Ible: capable of “The newspaper writer believed his source was credible, but his information ended up beign false” Creditable: praiseworthy cred: believe, trust able: capable of “The president’s actions were creditable and eventually recognized by the Nobel Peace Prize Committee” Credulous: ready to believe anything cred: believe, trust ous: full of “The trusting girl believed every lie her friend told her, she was quite credulous” Credence: belief cred: believe, trust ence: action, state of, quality “His previous actions gave his current sentiments credence” discredit-­‐ the state of being held in low esteem dis: negation cred: believe, trust “After lying about his credentials, the applicant was discredited” accredit: to attribute to ac: to, toward cred: believe, trust “Popular quotes are often accredited to multiple people” Accumulate: to become greater in quantity or number ac: to, toward cumul: mass, heap ate: to make Copyright © 2016 by BWS Education Consulting, Inc. 5 “The little girl accumulated a lot of candy on Halloween.” Cryptic: puzzling, enigmatic crypt: hidden ic: like, pertaining to “The rationale behind the criminal’s actions were cryptic to the jury” Cryptogram: Anything written in characters that are secret or so arranged as to have hidden meaning. crypt: hidden gram: writing “The siblings wrote all their notes in cryptogram so their parents couldn’t read them” Counterfeit: fake, false counter: against feit: to make, to do “The mob was manufacturing counterfeit money to use in their industry” Contraband: trade forbidden by law or treaty contra: against “The kid traded contraband candy even though they weren’t allowed to at school” Contradiction: The assertion of the opposite of that which has been said contra: against dict: say or speak ion: act of, state of, result of “The boy told the girl he liked her but contradicted himself by dating someone else the next day” contraposition: A placing opposite. contra: against posit: put ion: act of, state of, result of “The fork was first laid down, then the spoon was laid contraposition to the fork controversial: argumentative, contentious, disputatious contro: against vers: turn al: relating to There are many issues in the world of politics that are controversial. counteract: to act in opposition to counter: against Martin Luther King Jr. attempted to counteract racism in the United States. Anticyclone: an atmospheric condition of high central pressure, with currents flowing outward anti: against, opposed to cycl: circle, ring Cycloid: like a circle cycl: circle, ring oid: like The design of her tattoo was cycloid. Encyclical: intended for general circulation en: intensification, put into, or on Copyright © 2016 by BWS Education Consulting, Inc. 6 cycl: circle, ring al: relating to “An encyclical letter was sent out from the principal of the school” Epicycle: a circle that rolls upon the external or internal circumference of another circle epi: upon cycl: circle, ring “ Tricycle: a three wheeled vehicle tri: three cycl: circle, ring “Matt learned to ride bikes by first riding on a tricycle” Endemic: peculiar to some specified country or people en: put into or on, bring into the condition of, intensification dem: people ic: nature of, like “Some species are endemic and only found in a certain country” Pandemic: affecting a whole people or all classes pan: all dem: people ic: nature of, like “There are occasionally break outs of pandemic diseases” Dendroid: like a tree dendr: tree oid: like “The dendroid bush was not actually even related to trees” Dendrology: the natural history of trees dendr: tree ology: study, science, theory “The dendrology of a tree can sometimes be determined from its rings” Dentifrice: any preparation used for cleaning the teeth dent: tooth ice: condition, state, quality Derm-­‐ skin Dermatology: the branch of medical science which relates to the skin and its diseases derm: skin ology: study, science, theory “Because of her family’s history of skin cancer, Megan was interested in dermatology” Epidermis: the outer skin epi: upon derm: skin “The girl marked her epidermis with a marker.” Hypodermic: pertaining to the area under the skin hypo: under derm: skin Copyright © 2016 by BWS Education Consulting, Inc. 7 ic: nature of, like “The hypodermic needle dispensed the necessary medication” Taxidermy: the art or process of preserving dead animals tax: arrangement, order derm: skin “Western restaurants sometimes feature taxidermy animals.” Dictum: a positive utterance dict: speak “The monarch issued a dictum about the recent rash of violence” Edict: a decree issued by a sovereign or other authority dict: speak “ Indict: to bring formal accusation against in: into, towards dict: speak “The accused was indicted of multiple counts of burglary” Malediction: curse, imprecation male: bad, wretched dict: speak “The witch uttered malediction against the people who imprisoned her” Predict: to tell in advance pre: before in time or place dict: speak “The fortune-­‐teller predicted the outcome of an important basketball game” Benediction: utterance of good wishes ben: good, well dict: speak ion: act of, state of, result of “At the end of the service, the pastor said a benediction to send people on their way” Dominate: to influence controllingly domin: master ate: to make “Plantation owners dominated their slaves and treated them like property” Domineer: to rule with insolence domin: master eer: person who “The CEO was domineering and had a lot of influence over people” Predominate: superior in power pre: before in time, place, order or importance domin: master ate: to make “The vice president has a lot of power but the president is predominate” Copyright © 2016 by BWS Education Consulting, Inc. 8 Endurable: tolerable en: put into or on, intensification dur: tolerable able: capable of “Janice twisted her ankle but said the pain was endurable and that she would be okay.” Egoism: selfishness ego: self ism: system, manner, condition “Ben exhibited extreme egoism and cared only for himself” Anesthetic: loss of sensation an: not, without esth: feeling, sensation, beauty ic: nature of, like “Poppy’s headache was so severe that she required anesthetic to stay at work” Esthetic: pertaining to the sense of the beautiful esth: feeling, sensation, beauty ic: like, pertaining to “The art musuem appealed to the group’s esthetic side” Extraneous: external, foreign extra: outside, beyond ous: characterized by “The ideas of the religion seemed extraneous to those of others” Fidelity: loyalty fid: faith ity: state of being “Mia’s dog exhibited extraordinary fidelity even after she had lost him on vacation” Fudicial: indicative of faith or trust fud: faith ial: pertaining to “The couple’s willingness to be separated was fudicial” Infidel: unbeliever in: not, without fid: faith “The Catholic Church often persecutes infidels” Perfidy: deliberate breach of faith or trust per: throughly, through fid: faith “The lie was an express act of perfidy” Confidant: one to whom secrets are entrusted con: with, jointly, completely fid: faith ant: full of “The psychologist was many people’s only confidant” Diffidence: self distrust Copyright © 2016 by BWS Education Consulting, Inc. 9 di: negation, removal, expulsion fid: faith ence: action of, state of, quality “Jamie was insecure about his scholarly work, he showed a lot of diffidence” genuflection: act of bending the knee or touching it to the ground in worship ge: earth flect: bend tion: state of being “Genuflection is a big part of prayer in many religions” Flection: the act of bending flect: bend ion: state of being “Gymnasts have high ability for flection” Reflectible: able to cast back light re: again flect: bend ible: capable of being “The police officer’s glasses were reflectible” Deflect: to bend or turn aside de: down, away, completely, removal, reversal flect: bend “The girl deflected all of her friend’s questions about where she had been” Inflexible: resistant to being bent in: not, without flex: bend ible: able, can do “The piece of metal was very inflexible” Efflorescence: state or period of flowering ef: out upward, completely prevous flor: flower ence: state or quality of “Springtime is often one of efflorescence for various species” Flora: plants of a particular region or period flor: flower “Madagascar’s flora is very unique and sometimes seen no where else in the world” Florid: reddish, rosy flor: flower “After being out in the wind, Josh’s cheeks were florid” Fracture: a break fract: break Copyright © 2016 by BWS Education Consulting, Inc. 10 “Dan fractured his wrist when he fell off his bike” Refract: to alter or distort from a straight path undergone by a light ray or energywave in passing obliquely re: again fract: break Fragile: easily broken frag: break “The delicate cup was so fragile it broke when it was knocked over” Refragable: re: again frag: break able: capable of being Fugacious: fleeting fug: flee, run away, escape ous: characterized by “Damien’s thoughts were fugacious and he couldn’t hold onto them” Subterfuge: evasion sub: at a lower position, lower in rank, nearly, approximately fug: flee, run away, escape “Many armies practice subterfuge to avoid detection” Functionary: an official funct: perform, work tion: state of beng ary: relating to, quality of, place “The dignitary was accompanied by numerous functionaries” Engender: cause, produce en: put into or on, brng into the condtion of, intesifcation gen: birth, production er: one, who “Farming engenders produce” Generate: to produce or cause to be gen: birth production ate: become “The machine generated many electronic parts” genesis: creation gen: birth, production “The genesis of the world is explained by evolution” genitive: indication source, origin, possession, or the like gen: birth, production ive: having the nature of Genteel: well-­‐bred or refined gen: birth, production Copyright © 2016 by BWS Education Consulting, Inc. 11 “Many genteel people reside in New York’s upper east side” Monogram: a character consisting of two or more letters interwoven into one mono: one gram: letter “When people get married they sometime create a monogram from their initials” Phonogram: a graphic character symbolizing an articulate sound phon: sound gram: letter “ Anagram: the letters of a word or phrase so transposed as to make a difference word or phrase ana: again, against, back, up gram: letter “ ‘Spend it’ is an anagram of ‘stipend’” Epigram: a pithy phrasing of a shrewd observation epi: upon gram: letter, written “ Lithograph: producing a writing using a specially prepared stone and ink litho: stone graph: writing, written, recording Monograph: a treatise on a particular subject mono: one graph: writing, recording, written “Many people have written monographs about particular presidents” Typographical typ: stamp, model graph: writing, recording, written al: pertaining to Barograph: recordings of a barometer baro: weight, pressure graph: writing, recording, written Bibliography: a complete or selective list of works compiled upon some common principle bibl: book graph: writing, written, recording y: characterized by “The reference book was ended by a bibliography of all the references used to create it” Cosmography: a description or representation of the main features of the universe. cosmo: universe graph: writin, recording, written y: characterized by “The students studied a cosmography for their science class” Gratification: satisfaction Copyright © 2016 by BWS Education Consulting, Inc. 12 grat: pleasing fic: make tion: state of being “The cake provided gratification for the sweet toothed child” Gratuitous: voluntarily grat: pleasing ous: characterized by “The scholarship was given gratuitously by” Gratuity: tip grat: pleasng ity: quality of “Because the waiter was so attentive, the customers left a large gratuity” Ingratiate: to establish in the favor of good graces of others in: in, into towards, inside grat: pleasing ate: become “The new girl ingratiated herself with everyone at the party” Introgression: entrance intro: inward, within gress: to step, to go sion: state of being “The bride’s introgression is many people’s favorite part of weddings” Progression: a moving forward pro: in support of, acting for, motion forward gress: to step, to go sion: state of being “The progression of the disease was spelled out for the unfortunate patient” Regress: to return to a former place or condition re: again gress: to step, to go “After making a lot of progress, Cindy regressed to her former fear of heights.” Retrogression: moving backward retro: backward, behind gress: to step, to go sion: state of being “Bob retrogressed because something in the store window had caught his eye” Transgress: to break a law trans: across gress: to step, to go “Jails are full of transgressers” Aggress: to make the first attack ag: movement to, change into, addition, increase gress: to step, to go Copyright © 2016 by BWS Education Consulting, Inc. 13 “Dogs don’t often agress unless they feel threatened” Digress: to turn aside from the main subject di: negation, removal, expulsion gress: to step, to go “The teacher digressed from point of the lecture when she was reminded of another story” Egress: any place of exit e: out, upward, completely, previous gress: to step, to go “The flight attendent pointed out the places of egress from the plane” Retrograde: to move backward retro: backwards grad: to step, to go “After the car accident, Jenny had retrograde amnesia and couldn’t remember anything prior to the crash” Gradation: any process or change taking place through a series of stages grad: to step, to go tion: act of, state of, result of “The color wheel shows the gradation of hues” Gradient:moving or advancing by steps grad: to step, to go ient: “Skin tone is often determined in terms of gradients” Gynecocracy: female supremacy gyn: woman, female cracy: government, rule “There are a few gynecocracys around the world in which females are the top of society” Misogyny: hatred of women mis: hate gyn: woman, female “Talli accused her manager of being a misogynist when he treated her worse than the male employees” Philogynist: one who is fond of women phil: love, friendship gyn: woman, female “Phil the philogynist had many female friends” ist: one who, that which Exhausting: producting fatigue ex: from, out haust: draw “The work out was exhausting” Hemorrhage: discharge of blood from a ruptured or wounded blood-­‐vessel hem: blood “There is always a risk of hemorrhage when people undergo surgery” Hemorroids: tumors composed of enlarged and thickened blood vessels hem: blood Herbarium: a collection of dried plants scientifically arranged for study Copyright © 2016 by BWS Education Consulting, Inc. 14 herb: grass, plant “The science room featured a large ...
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