FCE--notes - Chapter 1 Development: the orderly and...

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Chapter 1 Development: the orderly and sequential changes that occur with the passage of time as an organism moves from conception to death; biologically programmed; environmental influences Developmental psychology: how individuals change with time while remaining in some respects the same Physical development: changes that occur in a person’s body; weight, height, muscles, organs, neurological Cognitive Development: changes that occur in mental activity; sensation, perception, memory, thought, reasoning, language Emotional-social development: changes in personality, emotions, relationships Growth: metabolic process, getting larger Maturation: automatic unfolding of biological potential in a set, irreversible sequence Learning: permanent modification in behavior that results from individual’s learning experience in the environment Ecological approach: development includes a person’s interactions with their environment, changing settings and relationship to those settings, and how the entire process is affected by the society in which the settings are embedded Microsystem: the network of social relationships and physical settings that the person is involved in every day Mesosystem: interrelationships among settings Exosystem: social structures that directly or indirectly affect a person’s life; school, government agencies, mass media Macrosystem: overarching cultural patterns of a society that are expressed in institutions Normative age-graded influences: have strong relation to chronological age; puberty Normative history-graded influences: historical factors; the Great Depression Age cohort: group of persons born in the same time period Nonnormative life events: unique turning points which change direction of someone’s life; injury, winning the lottery
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Age strata: social layers based on time periods in life; a 14 yr old might be a mom in one culture and starting high school in another Social norms: expectations of socially appropriate behavior Emerging adulthood: between adolescent and adulthood Scientific method: select problem; formulate hypothesis; test hypothesis; draw conclusions; publish findings Spatial ability: ability to mentally manipulate images in different directions Longitudinal: study the same individuals at different points in their life Selective attrition: individuals who drop out tend to be different than those who stay Cross-sectional design: simultaneously comparing different age groups Confounding: elements are mingled so they cannot be distinguished or separated Sequential designs: measuring more than one cohort over time Experimental design: “questions put to nature” Independent variable: what is manipulated Extraneous variables: factors that could confound the outcome Control group: identical to experimental group, but no treatment applied Dependent variable: the factor that is affected Case-study: longitudinal study that focuses on a single individual Social survey method: to study the incidence of specific behaviors or attitudes in a large
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FCE--notes - Chapter 1 Development: the orderly and...

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