Macronutrients_Micronutrients.docx

Macronutrients_Micronutrients.docx - Macronutrients and...

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Macronutrients and Micronutrients Maintenance of life and optimization of health requires that we ingest (or infuse) certain essential substances, referred to as nutrients. The sources of nutrients that we typically ingest in large quantities are called macronutrients, while the substances that are required only in tiny amounts are referred to as micronutrients. Macronutrients: Carbohydrates (sugars, starches, and fiber) Lipids (fats) Proteins Micronutrients: Vitamins Minerals Water is a unique category because water is the most essential nutrient of all. Water may be found in each of the macronutrients, created metabolically, ingested as water, or taken in as a component of another beverage. Nutrients are essential to life because they provide for two critical functions, energy production and structural rebuilding. Energy is required to perform metabolic reactions that are essential to life; the unit most commonly used to quantify energy transactions is the kilocalorie (kcal). Because cells are constantly remodeling it is necessary to rebuild discarded components, particularly proteins. Dietary protein intake is, therefore, absolutely essential to life. Carbohydrates are not essential, but are, in most circumstances, an optimal vehicle for energy repletion and are often “packaged” with essential micronutrients (e.g. vegetables). Certain fats are essential as the body cannot synthesize them, but the major contribution of fat is a source of energy. Macronutrients (Carbon + Water) Carbohydrates Lipids (fats) Protein
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CARBOHYDRATES Monosaccharides - Simple sugars: building blocks of larger carbohydrates Gluclose, (CH2O)n, C6H12O6, Galactose (in milk), Fructose (honey) Ribose, Deoxyribose Disaccharides - Double sugars Two simple sugars joined chemically Maltose, Lactose, Sucrose Polysaccharides - Long chains of simple sugars A whole bunch of glucoses stuck together Vegetables are complex carbohydrates Fruits Breads, Pastas, Potatoes, Sugars, Milk Stored in the body as glycogen Major source of energy during high intensity exercise Glucose keeps the brain running
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  • Spring '17
  • Antony Scalia
  • Nutrition, Vitamin

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