Study Guide – JS 211 FinalPrimary Sources 1.Edwin Landau -Date: 1933 - 1939-Author: Edwin Landau -Purpose: Example of individual response to the narrowing choices available to the Jews -Historical Context: oHow Nazi policy towards Jews develops in a variety of directions Isolation Period -Key Ideas: oSoldier in WWI and supporter of monarchy but not Weimar Republic oNothing for Landau to hold on to as his job, heritage, and status all taken away oInner separation from fatherland represent Jew’s isolation from the communityo“This land and this people that until now I have loved and treasured had suddenly become my enemy. So I was not a German anymore, or I was no longer supposed to be one.” 2.Martha Appel -Date: 1933 - 1939-Author: Martha Appel -Purpose: Example gender role reversal during the isolation period -Historical Context: oHow Nazi policy towards Jews develops in a variety of directions Isolation Period -Key Ideas: oWife of prominent Rabbi oGo against traditional gender norms from domestic to active with training programs for job skills aboard, transport children to foreign countries. oWomen not as integrated into the outside world so more adaptable oFamily, social network, and community = order of priority for women while inverse for men as they persisted that the legal institution wouldn’t betray them 3.Warsaw Diary of Chaim Kaplan -Date: 1939 – 1941 -Author: Chaim Kaplan -Purpose: oExample of spiritual and cultural resistance as response -Historical Context: oGhettoization Period
-Key Ideas: oIndividuals maintain their humanity, integrity and sense of civilization while Nazi attempt to dehumanize and degrade them oAdaptation and desensitization oGerman as “conquerors” oInversion of social values - children became “breadwinners” oRealized goal was to starve and impoverish them in body and spirit o“Everything is forbidden to us yet we do everything”4.Nuremberg Laws**-Date: September 15, 1935 -Purpose: Reichstag laws against racial mixing -Historical Context: oProtection of German Blood and German Honor prohibiting marriages and extramarital intercourse between Jews and GermanoAryanization of Jewish property + additional laws excluding Jews in German hospitals, schools, and court-Key Ideas: o1933 1 Jewish grandparent = Jew o1935 3-4 Jewish grandparents = Jew oDoesn’t matter if participate in Jewish religious community or notoJews as sexual predators oJewish leaders relieved after official statement because Jew’s position is clear oPhilanthropists organized 15-year plan to transition life out of Germany 5.Schnellbrief (Urgent Memo) -Date: 1939 -Author: Reinhardt Heydrich -Purpose: Urgent memo to secret police Einsatzgruppen authorizing ghettos and deportation to concentration centers oMove Jews and establish Judenrat Jewish Council -Historical Context: oAfter invasion of Poland (Phase 1 into Phase 2) -Key Ideas: oTemporary solution of Jews oGhettos and camps established near railroads for easy transport oJudenrat
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