General_Chemistry_Review.pdf

General_Chemistry_Review.pdf - MCAT® General Chemistry...

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Unformatted text preview: MCAT® General Chemistry Review Edited by Alexander Stone Macnow, MD Table of Contents 1. MCAT® General Chemistry Review 1. Cover 1. Title Page 2. Table of Contents 3. The Kaplan MCAT Review Team 4. About Scientific American 5. About the MCAT 6. How This Book Was Created 7. Using This Book 2. Chapter 1: Atomic Structure 1. Atomic Structure 2. Introduction 3. 1.1 Subatomic Particles 4. 1.2 Atomic Mass vs. Atomic Weight 5. 1.3 Rutherford, Planck, and Bohr 6. 1.4 Quantum Mechanical Model of Atoms 7. Conclusion 8. Concept Summary 9. Answers to Concept Checks 10. Equations to Remember 11. Shared Concepts 12. Practice Questions 13. Answers and Explanations 3. Chapter 2: The Periodic Table 1. The Periodic Table 2. Introduction 3. 2.1 The Periodic Table 4. 2.2 Types of Elements 5. 2.3 Periodic Properties of the Elements 6. 2.4 The Chemistry of Groups 7. Conclusion 8. Concept Summary 9. Answers to Concept Checks 10. Shared Concepts 11. Practice Questions 12. Answers and Explanations 4. Chapter 3: Bonding and Chemical Interactions 1. Bonding and Chemical Interactions 2. Introduction 3. 3.1 Bonding 4. 3.2 Ionic Bonds 5. 3.3 Covalent Bonds 6. 3.4 Intermolecular Forces 7. Conclusion 8. Concept Summary 9. Answers to Concept Checks 10. Equations to Remember 11. Shared Concepts 12. Practice Questions 13. Answers and Explanations 5. Chapter 4: Compounds and Stoichiometry 1. Compounds and Stoichiometry 2. Introduction 3. 4.1 Molecules and Moles 4. 4.2 Representation of Compounds 5. 4.3 Types of Chemical Reactions 6. 4.4 Balancing Chemical Equations 7. 4.5 Applications of Stoichiometry 8. 4.6 Ions 9. Conclusion 10. Concept Summary 11. Answers to Concept Checks 12. Equations to Remember 13. Shared Concepts 14. Practice Questions 15. Answers and Explanations 6. Chapter 5: Chemical Kinetics 1. Chemical Kinetics 2. Introduction 3. 5.1 Chemical Kinetics 4. 5.2 Reaction Rates 5. Conclusion 6. Concept Summary 7. Answers to Concept Checks 8. Equations to Remember 9. Shared Concepts 10. Practice Questions 11. Answers and Explanations 7. Chapter 6: Equilibrium 1. Equilibrium 2. Introduction 3. 6.1 Equilibrium 4. 6.2 Le Châtelier’s Principle 5. 6.3 Kinetic and Thermodynamic Control 6. Conclusion 7. Concept Summary 8. Answers to Concept Checks 9. Equations to Remember 10. Shared Concepts 8. 9. 10. 11. 11. Practice Questions 12. Answers and Explanations Chapter 7: Thermochemistry 1. Thermochemistry 2. Introduction 3. 7.1 Systems and Processes 4. 7.2 States and State Functions 5. 7.3 Heat 6. 7.4 Enthalpy 7. 7.5 Entropy 8. 7.6 Gibbs Free Energy 9. Conclusion 10. Concept Summary 11. Answers to Concept Checks 12. Equations to Remember 13. Shared Concepts 14. Practice Questions 15. Answers and Explanations Chapter 8: The Gas Phase 1. The Gas Phase 2. Introduction 3. 8.1 The Gas Phase 4. 8.2 Ideal Gases 5. 8.3 Kinetic Molecular Theory 6. 8.4 Real Gases 7. Conclusion 8. Concept Summary 9. Answers to Concept Checks 10. Equations to Remember 11. Shared Concepts 12. Practice Questions 13. Answers and Explanations Chapter 9: Solutions 1. Solutions 2. Introduction 3. 9.1 Nature of Solutions 4. 9.2 Concentration 5. 9.3 Solution Equilibria 6. 9.4 Colligative Properties 7. Conclusion 8. Concept Summary 9. Answers to Concept Checks 10. Equations to Remember 11. Shared Concepts 12. Practice Questions 13. Answers and Explanations Chapter 10: Acids and Bases 1. Acids and Bases 2. Introduction 3. 10.1 Definitions 4. 10.2 Properties 5. 10.3 Polyvalence and Normality 6. 10.4 Titration and Buffers 7. Conclusion 8. Concept Summary 9. Answers to Concept Checks 10. Equations to Remember 11. Shared Concepts 12. Practice Questions 13. Answers and Explanations 12. Chapter 11: Oxidation–Reduction Reactions 1. Oxidation–Reduction Reactions 2. Introduction 3. 11.1 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions 4. 11.2 Net Ionic Equations 5. Conclusion 6. Concept Summary 7. Answers to Concept Checks 8. Shared Concepts 9. Practice Questions 10. Answers and Explanations 13. Chapter 12: Electrochemistry 1. Electrochemistry 2. Introduction 3. 12.1 Electrochemical Cells 4. 12.2 Cell Potentials 5. 12.3 Electromotive Force and Thermodynamics 6. Conclusion 7. Concept Summary 8. Answers to Concept Checks 9. Equations to Remember 10. Shared Concepts 11. Practice Questions 12. Answers and Explanations 14. About This Book 1. Copyright Information 2. Glossary 3. Index 4. Art Credits 5. Periodic Table of the Elements 6. Special Offer for Kaplan Students Guide 1. Cover 2. Table of Contents 3. Start of Content The Kaplan MCAT Review Team Alexander Stone Macnow, MD Editor-in-Chief Uneeb Qureshi Kaplan MCAT Faculty MCAT faculty reviewers Elmar R. Aliyev; James Burns; Jonathan Cornfield; Alisha Maureen Crowley; Nikolai Dorofeev, MD; Benjamin Downer, MS; Colin Doyle; M. Dominic Eggert; Marilyn Engle; Eleni M. Eren; Raef Ali Fadel; Tyra Hall-Pogar, PhD; Scott Huff; Samer T. Ismail; Elizabeth A. Kudlaty; Kelly Kyker-Snowman, MS; Ningfei Li; John P. Mahon; Matthew A. Meier; Nainika Nanda; Caroline Nkemdilim Opene; Kaitlyn E. Prenger; Derek Rusnak, MA; Kristen L. Russell, ME; Bela G. Starkman, PhD; Michael Paul Tomani, MS; Nicholas M. White; Kerranna Williamson, MBA; Allison Ann Wilkes, MS; and Tony Yu Thanks to Kim Bowers; Tim Eich; Samantha Fallon; Owen Farcy; Dan Frey; Robin Garmise; Rita Garthaffner; Joanna Graham; Adam Grey; Allison Harm; Beth Hoffberg; Aaron Lemon-Strauss; Keith Lubeley; Diane McGarvey; Petros Minasi; John Polstein; Deeangelee Pooran-Kublall, MD, MPH; Rochelle Rothstein, MD; Larry Rudman; Sylvia Tidwell Scheuring; Carly Schnur; Karin Tucker; Lee Weiss; and the countless others who made this project possible. About Scientific American Scientific American is at the heart of Nature Publishing Group’s consumer media division, meeting the needs of the general public. Founded in 1845, Scientific American is the longest continuously published magazine in the United States and the leading authoritative publication for science in the general media. In its history, 148 Nobel Prize scientists have contributed 240 articles to Scientific American, including Albert Einstein, Francis Crick, Stanley Prusiner, and Richard Axel. Together with scientificamerican.com and in translation in 14 languages around the world, it reaches more than 5 million consumers and scientists. Other titles include Scientific American Mind and Spektrum der Wissenschaft in Germany. Scientific American won a 2011 National Magazine Award for General Excellence. About the MCAT The structure of the four sections of the MCAT is shown below. Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems Time 95 minutes 59 questions Format 10 passages 44 questions are passage-based, and 15 are discrete (stand-alone) questions. Score between 118 and 132 Biochemistry: 25% What It Tests Biology: 5% General Chemistry: 30% Organic Chemistry: 15% Physics: 25% Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills (CARS) Time 90 minutes 53 questions Format 9 passages All questions are passage-based. There are no discrete (stand-alone) questions. Score between 118 and 132 Disciplines: Humanities: 50% What It Tests Social Sciences: 50% Skills: Foundations of Comprehension: 30% Reasoning Within the Text: 30% Reasoning Beyond the Text: 40% Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems Time 95 minutes 59 questions Format 10 passages 44 questions are passage-based, and 15 are discrete (stand-alone) questions. Score between 118 and 132 Biochemistry: 25% What It Tests Biology: 65% General Chemistry: 5% Organic Chemistry: 5% Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior Time 95 minutes 59 questions Format 10 passages 44 questions are passage-based, and 15 are discrete (stand-alone) questions. Score between 118 and 132 What It Tests Biology: 5% Psychology: 65% Sociology: 30% Total Testing Time Questions Score 375 minutes (6 hours, 15 minutes) 230 472 to 528 The MCAT also tests four Scientific Inquiry and Reasoning Skills (SIRS): 1. 2. 3. 4. Knowledge of Scientific Concepts and Principles (35% of questions) Scientific Reasoning and Problem-Solving (45% of questions) Reasoning About the Design and Execution of Research (10% of questions) Data-Based and Statistical Reasoning (10% of questions) The MCAT is a computer-based test (CBT) and is offered at Prometric centers during almost every month of the year. There are optional breaks between each section, and there is a lunch break between the second and third section of the exam. Register online for the MCAT at . For further questions, contact the MCAT team at the Association of American Medical Colleges: MCAT Resource Center Association of American Medical Colleges (202) 828-0690 [email protected] How This Book Was Created The Kaplan MCAT Review project began in November 2012 shortly after the release of the Preview Guide for the MCAT 2015 Exam, 2nd edition. Through thorough analysis by our staff psychometricians, we were able to analyze the relative yield of the different topics on the MCAT, and we began constructing tables of contents for the books of the Kaplan MCAT Review series. Writing of the books began in April 2013. A dedicated staff of 19 writers, 7 editors, and 32 proofreaders worked over 5000 combined hours to produce these books. The format of the books was heavily influenced by weekly meetings with Kaplan’s learning-science team. These books were submitted for publication in July 2014. For any updates after this date, please visit . The information presented in these books covers everything listed on the official MCAT content lists— nothing more, nothing less. Every topic in these lists is covered in the same level of detail as is common to the undergraduate and postbaccalaureate classes that are considered prerequisites for the MCAT. Note that your premedical classes may cover topics not discussed in these books, or they may go into more depth than these books do. Additional exposure to science content is never a bad thing, but recognize that all of the content knowledge you are expected to have walking in on Test Day is covered in these books. If you have any questions [email protected] [email protected] . about the content presented here, email . For other questions not related to content, email Each book has been vetted through at least six rounds of review. To that end, the information presented is these books is true and accurate to the best of our knowledge. Still, your feedback helps us improve our prep materials. Please notify us of any inaccuracies or errors in the books by sending an email to [email protected] . Using This Book Kaplan MCAT General Chemistry Review, along with the other six books in the Kaplan MCAT Review series, brings the Kaplan classroom experience to you—right in your home, at your convenience. This book offers the same Kaplan content review, strategies, and practice that make Kaplan the #1 choice for MCAT prep. After all, twice as many doctors prepared with Kaplan for the MCAT than with any other course. This book is designed to help you review the general chemistry topics covered on the MCAT. Please understand that content review—no matter how thorough—is not sufficient preparation for the MCAT! The MCAT tests not only your science knowledge but also your critical reading, reasoning, and problem-solving skills. Do not assume that simply memorizing the contents of this book will earn you high scores on Test Day; to maximize your scores, you must also improve your reading and test-taking skills through MCAT-style questions and practice tests. MCAT CONCEPT CHECKS At the end of each section, you’ll find a few open-ended questions that you can use to assess your mastery of the material. These MCAT Concept Checks were introduced after multiple conversations with Kaplan’s learning-science team. Research has demonstrated repeatedly that introspection and selfanalysis improve mastery, retention, and recall of material. Complete these MCAT Concept Checks to ensure that you’ve got the key points from each section before moving on! PRACTICE QUESTIONS At the end of each chapter, you’ll find 15 MCAT-style practice questions. These are designed to help you assess your understanding of the chapter you just read. Most of these questions focus on the first of the Scientific Inquiry and Reasoning Skills (Knowledge of Scientific Concepts and Principles), although there are occasional questions that fall into the second or fourth SIRS (Scientific Reasoning and Problem-Solving, and Data-Based and Statistical Reasoning, respectively). SIDEBARS The following is a guide to the five types of sidebars you’ll find in Kaplan MCAT General Chemistry Review: Bridge: These sidebars create connections between science topics that appear in multiple chapters throughout the Kaplan MCAT Review series. Key Concept: These sidebars draw attention to the most important takeaways in a given topic, and they sometimes offer synopses or overviews of complex information. If you understand nothing else, make sure you grasp the Key Concepts for any given subject. MCAT Expertise: These sidebars point out how information may be tested on the MCAT or offer key strategy points and test-taking tips that you should apply on Test Day. Mnemonic: These sidebars present memory devices to help recall certain facts. Real World: These sidebars illustrate how a concept in the text relates to the practice of medicine or the world at large. While this is not information you need to know for Test Day, many of the topics in Real World sidebars are excellent examples of how a concept may appear in a passage or discrete (stand-alone) question on the MCAT. This book also contains a thorough glossary and index for easy navigation of the text. In this end, this is your book, so write in the margins, draw diagrams, highlight the key points—do whatever is necessary to help you get that higher score. We look forward to working with you as you achieve your dreams and become the doctor you deserve to be! In This Chapter 1. 1.1 2. 1.2 3. 1.3 4. 1.4 Subatomic Particles Protons Neutrons Electrons Atomic Mass vs. Atomic Weight Atomic Mass Atomic Weight Rutherford, Planck, and Bohr Bohr Model Applications of the Bohr Model Quantum Mechanical Model of Atoms Quantum Numbers Electron Configurations Hund’s Rule Valence Electrons Concept Summary Introduction Chemistry is the investigation of the atoms and molecules that make up our bodies, our possessions, the world around us, and the food that we eat. There are different branches of chemistry, three of which are tested directly on the MCAT: general (inorganic) chemistry, organic chemistry, and biochemistry. Ultimately, all investigations in chemistry are seeking to answer the questions that confront us in the form—the shape, structure, mode, and essence—of the physical world that surrounds us. Many students feel similarly about general chemistry and physics: But I’m premed!, they say. Why do I need to know any of this? What good will this be when I’m a doctor? Do I only need to know this for the MCAT? Recognize that to be an effective doctor, one must understand the physical building blocks that make up the human body. Pharmacologic treatment is based on chemistry; many diagnostic tests used every day detect changes in the chemistry of the body. So, let’s get down to the business of learning and remembering the principles of the physical world that help us understand what all this “stuff ” is, how it works, and why it behaves the way it does—at both the molecular and macroscopic levels. In the process of reading through these chapters and applying your knowledge to practice questions, you’ll prepare yourself for success not only on the Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems section of the MCAT but also in your future career as a physician. This first chapter starts our review of General Chemistry with a consideration of the fundamental unit of matter—the atom. First, we focus on the subatomic particles that make it up: protons, neutrons, and electrons. We will also review the Bohr and quantum mechanical models of the atom, with a particular focus on the similarities and differences between them. MCAT EXPERTISE The building blocks of the atom are also the building blocks of knowledge for the general chemistry concepts tested on the MCAT. By understanding these particles, we will be able to use that knowledge as the “nucleus” of understanding for all of general chemistry. 1.1 Subatomic Particles Although you may have encountered in your university-level chemistry classes such subatomic particles as quarks, leptons, and gluons, the MCAT’s approach to atomic structure is much simpler. There are three subatomic particles that you must understand: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Figure 1.1. Matter: From Macroscopic to Microscopic PROTONS Protons are found in the nucleus of an atom, as shown in Figure 1.1. Each proton has an amount of charge equal to the fundamental unit of charge (e = 1.6 × 10−19 C), and we denote this fundamental unit of charge as “+1 e” or simply “+1” for the proton. Protons have a mass of approximately one atomic mass unit (amu). The atomic number (Z) of an element, as shown in Figure 1.2, is equal to the number of protons found in an atom of that element. As such, it acts as a unique identifier for each element because elements are defined by the number of protons they contain. For example, all atoms of oxygen contain eight protons; all atoms of gadolinium contain 64 protons. While all atoms of a given element have the same atomic number, they do not necessarily have the same mass—as we will see in our discussion of isotopes. Figure 1.2. Potassium, from the Periodic Table Potassium has the symbol K (Latin: kalium), atomic number 19, and atomic weight of approximately 39.1. NEUTRONS Neutrons, as the name implies, are neutral—they have no charge. A neutron’s mass is only slightly larger than that of the proton, and together, the protons and the neutrons of the nucleus make up almost the entire mass of an atom. Every atom has a characteristic mass number (A), which is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the atom’s nucleus. A given element can have a variable number of neutrons; thus, while atoms of the same element always have the same atomic number, they do not necessarily have the same mass number. Atoms that share an atomic number but have different mass numbers are known as isotopes of the element, as shown in Figure 1.3. For example, carbon (Z = 6) has three naturally occurring isotopes: 612C, with six protons and six neutrons; 613C, with six protons and seven neutrons; and 614C, with six protons and eight neutrons. The convention ZAX is used to show both the atomic number (Z) and the mass number (A) of atom X. Figure 1.3. Various Isotopes of Hydrogen Atoms of the same element have the same atomic number (Z = 1), but may have varying mass numbers (Az = 1, 2, or 3). ELECTRONS Electrons move through the space surrounding the nucleus and are associated with varying levels of energy. Each electron has a charge equal in magnitude to that of a proton, but with the opposite (negative) sign, denoted by “−1 e” or simply “–e.” The mass of an electron is approximately that of a proton. Because subatomic particles’ masses are so small, the electrostatic force of attraction between the unlike charges of the proton and electron is far greater than the gravitational force of attraction based on their respective masses. Electrons move around the nucleus at varying distances, which correspond to varying levels of electrical potential energy. The electrons closer to the nucleus are at lower energy levels, while those that are further out (in higher shells) have higher energy. The electrons that are farthest from the nucleus have the strongest interactions with the surrounding environment and the weakest interactions with the nucleus. These electrons are called valence electrons; they are much more likely to become involved in bonds with other a...
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