2414 Ch29 Development, Growth, Aging, & Genetics.pptx

2414 Ch29 Development, Growth, Aging, & Genetics.pptx -...

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BIOL 2414 Chapter 29 Development, Growth, Aging, & Genetics
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Developmental Stages Prenatal Fertilization – 9 mo Developmental stages based on fertilization date Clinical age based on last menstrual period (LMP) Postovulatory age is ~ 14 d less than LMP Postnatal After birth
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Prenatal Stages 1. Germinal Fertilization – Week 2 Germ layer formation 2. Embryonic Week 3 – Week 8 Organs Embryo 3. Fetal Week 9 – Birth Fetus
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Postnatal Stages 1. Neonatal Birth – 1 mo 2. Infancy 1 mo – 2 yo Able to walk 3. Childhood 2 yo – Puberty 4. Adolescence Puberty (11 – 14 yo) – 20 yo 5. Adult 20 yo – Death End of growth spurt by 18 yo ( ) or 20 yo ( ) Young adult (20 – 40 yo) Middle age (40 – 65 yo) Older adult (65 – death)
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Fertilization Fig. 29.1 Uterine tube Ampulla ZP3 species-specific sperm cell receptor Depolarization Fast block to polyspermy Loss of ZP3 Slow block to polyspermy
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Fertilization Fig. 29.1
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Blastocyst & Implantation Fig. 29.2 18 – 36 hpf Totipotent Pluripotent 12 + cells ICM Embryo Day 7
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Implantation & Placenta Formation Fig. 29.3 Nutrient & Waste exchange Cytotrophoblast divides Syncytiotrophoblast does not divide
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Implantation & Placenta Formation Fig. 29.3
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Mature Placenta & Fetus Fig. 29.4
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Implantation Disorders Placenta previa Implantation near cervix Tear placenta over cervical opening Hemorrhaging & possible miscarriage Abruptio placentae Weak placental attachment Hemorrhaging & possible miscarriage
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Embryonic Disk Fig. 29.5 Epiblast Germ layers Hypoblast Extraembryonic membranes
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Germ Layer Development Gastrulation 13 – 14 dpf Epiblast cells move to center of embryonic disk Primitive streak Cell-cell communication Growth factors 1. Endoderm 2. Mesoderm 3. Ectoderm
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Embryonic Disk w/ Primitive Streak Fig. 29.6
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Germ Layer Derivatives Table 29.1
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Neural Tube Formation Fig. 29.7 18 dpf Neuroectoderm Brain, spinal cord, PNS 26 dpf
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Neural Crest Cells Head = Skull, dentin, skeletal muscle, connective tissue Mesenchyme = Mesoderm or Neural crest cells
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Somitogenesis From mesoderm Head muscle Skull Vertebral column Skeletal muscle
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Digestive Tract Formation Fig. 29.8 Head Tail
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Digestive Tract Formation Fig. 29.8 Head Tail Mouth Urethra & anus Bladder
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