Unit 1 study guide.pdf.docx - Study Guide Unit 1 NU 545 1...

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Study Guide Unit 1 NU 545 1. What is metabolic absorption? (p3) (s1.12) 1 of 8 cellular functions, the process of cells taking in and using nutrients and other substances from their surroundings. 2. During cell injury what is released that is capable of cellular autodigestion? (p 7) (s1.12) Lysosomal enzymes, hydrolases, which are the digestive enzymes within a lysosome. Lysosomes originate from the Golgi complex. 3. Where is the genetic info contained in the cell? (p3) (s1.7) Nucleus- cell division and control of genetic information. 4. Cell membranes contain which major chemical components? (p12) (s1.18) Lipids and proteins. Lipid bilayer 5. Know the 4 phases of the cell cycle (p36) (s1.50) G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, M phase Interphase is G1, S, and G2 phases. M phase – mitosis and cytokinesis – prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase. G1 – most of cells life, makes extra organelles and proteins S – synthesis, DNA replication (in nucleus) G2 – growth, RNA and protein synthesis, preparing for mitosis M – active cell division, nuclear and cytoplasmic division 6. What allows potassium to diffuse in and out of cells? (p31) (s1.43) Active transport, antiport system – moves molecules in opposite directions Uses energy, ATP. Sodium-potassium pump. Electrogenic – the inside of the cell is more negative than the outside. 7. How is the cell protected from injury? (p12) (p47) (s2.2) Plasma membrane: barrier to toxic molecules, and macromolecules – proteins, nucleic acid, polysaccharides- barrier to foreign organisms and cells. Cellular adaption Atrophy: common in skeletal muscle, heart, secondary sex organs, brain, occurs through decreased protein synthesis or increased protein degradation. Protein degradation occurs mostly through the ubiquitin- proteasome pathway. Hypertrophy: caused by increased work or hormones, mechanical and trophic signals trigger cardiac hypertrophy Hyperplasia: caused by increased rate in cellular division which increases number of cells, physiologic is normal: compensatory hyperplasia in epidermal cells example is callus, hormonal hyperplasia example pregnancy and thickening of uterine lining, pathologic hyperplasia is abnormal proliferation can occur as response to excessive hormonal stimulation or effects of growth factors on target cells.
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8. What is platelet-derived growth factor? (p38) (s1.53) A mitogen which is a protein, a substance that stimulates or induces mitosis, helps stimulate blood clotting at sites of tissue damage, stimulates smooth muscle cells, neuroglial cells, fibroblasts – so stimulates connective tissue. 9. What is cell communication? How does it occur? (p19) (s1.28) Used to maintain stable internal environment or homeostasis, regulates growth and division, regulates development and organization into tissues, coordinates cellular functions.
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  • Fall '16
  • rebecca thomas
  • ECF, Hyperkalemia, Hypermagnesemia

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