9/24/2013 2 What is Socialization? •Research on the effects of social isolation has demonstrated the importance of socialization. This research includes: 1. Harry and Margaret Harlow’s (1962) experimental work with rhesus monkeys. 2. Studies of isolated children such as Anna, Isabelle, and Genie. 3. All evidence points to the crucial importance of social experience in personality development. How does socialization occur? •Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): The elements of personality: The personality is shaped by two opposed forces: eros, the life instinct, and thanatos, the death instinct. •The personality includes three basic components: The id, the human being’s basic drives. How does socialization occur? •Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): The elements of personality: The ego, a person’s conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society. The superego, the operation of culture within the individual. The id and superego remain in conflict, but in a well-adjusted person, the ego manages these two opposing forces.