Socialization.pdf - Socialization Becoming Human What is...

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9/24/2013 1 Socialization Becoming Human What is Socialization? Socializationis the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture. Social experience is also the foundation for the personality, a person’s fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting.What is Socialization? In the nineteenth century there was an intense debate regarding the relative importance of nature (biology) and nurture (socialization) in the shaping of human behavior. Modern sociologists view nurture as much more important than nature in shaping human behavior.
9/24/2013 2 What is Socialization? Research on the effects of social isolation has demonstrated the importance of socialization. This research includes: 1. Harry and Margaret Harlow’s (1962) experimental work with rhesus monkeys. 2. Studies of isolated children such as Anna, Isabelle, and Genie. 3. All evidence points to the crucial importance of social experience in personality development. How does socialization occur? Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): The elements of personality: The personality is shaped by two opposed forces: eros, the life instinct, and thanatos, the death instinct. The personality includes three basic components: The id, the human being’s basic drives. How does socialization occur? Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): The elements of personality: The ego, a person’s conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society. The superego, the operation of culture within the individual. The id and superego remain in conflict, but in a well-adjusted person, the ego manages these two opposing forces.
9/24/2013 3 How does socialization occur? Critical review. Freud’s notion that we internalize norms and his idea that childhood experiences have lasting importance in the socialization process remain critical. Some of his work has been criticized as reflecting a sexist bias. How does socialization occur? Jean Piaget (1896-1980): Cognitive development. Piaget identified four stages of cognitive development: The sensorimotor stage,the level of human development in which individuals experience the world only through sensory contact.

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