SOC 310 Exam I Notes Spring 2008

SOC 310 Exam I Notes Spring 2008 - Soc 310-Community Spring...

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Soc 310-Community Spring 2008 Exam I, Brief Lecture Notes Why do we have communities? Nearness-cannot completely transcend space; Facilitates contact; Furnishes protection; Facilitates organization to provide for needs Three elements of community Geographic area - community occupies space and time Independent variable- locational factor (natural resources, transportation routes, recreation) Dependent variable-transformed by social and cultural factors (Brasilia) Settlement patterns- preindustrial, industrial, post industrial, street villages, grid pattern, radial pattern, follow topography Social interaction Communities have the same properties as other social groups: 1 Body of members; 2 one or more tests of membership; 3 collection of assigned roles; 4 set of norms Interaction my be between any combination of individuals, groups, and institutions- Some are communal in nature, others not (whether or not they contribute to and benefit the community) Horizontal and vertical axis in interaction- local or extra local Community interaction has typical themes and patterns that are referred to as basic social processes- cooperation, competition, conflict, accommodation, assimilation Common Ties - psychocultural aspect People in a community hold in common certain sentiments, beliefs, values, attitudes that act as a cohesive influence- we feeling (identification of self-interest with well being of the community), role feeling, (a position and function in the group), dependency feeling (dependence on the community for fulfillment of needs) Ideal or constructed types An ideal or constructed type is a theory Simplified, sometimes purposely exaggerated model of a social phenomenon Not the product of the imagination of the investigator, but based upon empirical cases Characteristics 1. Simplified model of reality that includes only key variables that typify the system 2. Based upon examination of more than one case 3. Often (usually in community studies) concerned not only with system being studied, but also its polar opposite 4. Suggest some continuum along which types can be classified (such as the rural-urban continuum) Usefulness 1. Powerful tool for deriving generalizations about communities (omits ideosyncracies) 2. Useful in comparing communities (urban-rural) 3. Useful in studying social change and making predictions (evolutionary) Ferdinand Toennies Theory based on types of relations people enter into
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Gemeinschaft —Community, Gesellschaft —Society Determined or created by different types of will: Wesenwille (Gemein.)—natural will, based upon tradition, sentiment, feeling; the relation is an end unto itself Kurwille (Gesell.)—rational will, based upon rationality; people relate to each other as means to an end Results of different wills is found in social relationships, social norms, social values, etc. Relationships: Natural
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SOC 310 Exam I Notes Spring 2008 - Soc 310-Community Spring...

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