1Psychology 1000 - SmithReview Materials for EXAM 3Chapter 6 – Learning-_________ is a process by which behaviour or knowledge changes as a result of experience.-What animal did Ivan Pavlov perform experiments on?-What is the difference between an unconditioned stimulus (US) and a conditioned stimulus (CS)? Whichone was at one time a neutral stimulus?-What is the difference between an unconditioned response (UR) and a conditioned response (CR)?-Jim-Bob had an old pick-up truck. Whenever he started the truck, it would make a buzzing noise before backfiring (i.e., producing a very loud, unpleasant noise). Zeke, Jim-Bob’s faithful dog didn’t mind the buzzing noise at first. But, every time the truck backfired, Zeke would flinch and become scared. After afew weeks, Zeke would flinch whenever the buzzing noise began. In this situation, what would be the US, UR, neutral stimulus, CS, and CR?-What is the proposed neural mechanism for classical conditioning (see page 232; page 229 in the book’s 1stedition)?-What is the difference between acquisition and extinction in classical conditioning?-The reoccurrence of a previously extinguished conditioned response is known as ________________.-What is the difference between stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination?-Who is Little Albert and how is he related to the concept of conditioned emotional responses?-What is the evidence for an evolutionary role in fear conditioning? What is preparedness?-What is a conditioned taste aversion? -List two reasons why it is easier to form this type of aversion than to develop an aversion to visual or auditory stimuli.-What is evaluative conditioning and how is it related to political advertising?-What is conditioned drug tolerance?-What is the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning?-What is the difference between reinforcement and punishment?-Describe Thorndike’s experiment that led to his discovery of the Law of Effect.-__________________ has occurred if a behaviour becomes more likely to occur in the future because it removes or reduces another, often aversive, stimulus.-What is the difference between avoidance learning and escape learning? Which type of learning occurred in Thorndike’s research?-What is the difference between positive and negative punishment?