Lecture 3 - -see example of Red Sea 3 This is followed by...

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LECTURE NOTES -- GEOSCIENCES 40 (Marone/Arthur) Sep 6 2005, Lecture 3 ORIGIN OF THE OCEAN BASINS PLATE TECTONICS Earth's surface is in motion! CONTINENTAL DRIFT EVIDENCE --an early version of the theory of PLATE TECTONICS Evidence: Fit of the continents, also Geologic evidence -matching continental outlines noted as early as 1500 AD (da Vinci, Bacon, Buffon, etc.) *** 12 Major Plates *** Earthquakes Define the Plate Boundaries *** Three Types of Plate Boundaries 1. Divergent 2. Transform 3. Convergent This can all be summarized in THE "WILSON CYCLE" (CREATION AND DESTRUCTION OF OCEAN BASIN) 1. Uplift and rifting of continents --example: East African rift basins 2. Initial opening of ocean basin Seafloor spreading and ocean basin widens
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Unformatted text preview: --see example of Red Sea 3. This is followed by subduction along oceanic margins 4. Eventual closure of ocean basin Continent-continent collision and "suturing"--example: Himalayan orogeny Some plates slide by one another along strike-slip (or transform) faults, such as in California along San Andreas Fault system SUPPORT FOR SEA FLOOR SPREADING-Magnetic "stripes" on seafloor-Bilateral symmetry about the midocean ridge;-Radiometric dating of polarity reversals Island Chains --these appear to move over Hot Spots that are stationary Heat flow from within the Earth drives plate motions Three main forces that move plates 1. Ridge Push 2. Basal drag 3. Slab pull...
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