KIN_1080_2019_3_slides_per_page.pdf

KIN_1080_2019_3_slides_per_page.pdf - Introduction to...

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1 Introduction to Psycho- Motor Learning (Winter, 2019) Dr. Matthew Heath School of Kinesiology The University of Western Ontario Office: 3M Rm 2225 Email: [email protected] What is Psycho-Motor Learning? Topic #1
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2 Frontal and temporal lobes most susceptible to concussive injury (i.e., mild traumatic brain injury: mTBI) Frontal Lobe = executive and high-level cognitive function Temporal lobe = memory and language function Contre-coup more likely to occur on side of cortex or frontal lobe. Mechanism and Injury Arising From Concussion Sport Player match hours Rugby Union 3.9 Australian rules 4.3 Soccer 0.3 American football 0.4 Horse racing (amateur) 95.2 Horse racing (jumping) 25.0 Boxing 19.0 Gardner et al. 2014: Sports Med
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3 1. CDC estimates between 50,000 and 300,000 concussion in sport/yr 2. Two forms of sport concussion (legacy definitions): Simple - limit players participation during symptomatic period, but no intervention required during the recovery period - athlete typically returns to play without further problem(s) Complex - continued symptoms during recovery period (usually associated with episode of loss of consciousness) 3. In NCAA football an athlete with previous concussion is 5.8 times more likely to sustain multiple concussions 4. Athletes with multiple concussions recover much slower than athletes who have experiences a single concussion 5. Athletes with multiple concussions show poorer memory recall than athletes with a single concussion when tested two days post concussion 6. Athletes with multiple concussion show performance that is 7.7 worse than single concussion athletes in a memory recall test Daneshvar DH, Goldstein LE, Kiernan PT, Stein TD, McKee AC. Post-traumatic neurodegeneration and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2015 May; 66(Pt B):81-90 1. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE): linked to participation in contact sports and results in: Progressive decline of memory and cognition Depression Suicidal behaviour Poor impulse control Aggressiveness Parkinsonism (eventually) dementia Motor neuron disease (similar to ALS) 2. CTE is thought to be the result of repetitive brain trauma that occurs with or without symptomatic concussion. 3. Athletes in contact sports such as football may experience subconcussive impacts on the order of 1400 per season. In high school, a football player who plays both defense and offense may experience more than 2000 subconcussive impacts (more for linemen and linebackers) per season. 4. Recent research has shown a strong link between concussion and CTE.
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4 Top left: Whole mount section of frontal cortex showing very focal deposition of tau protein around small blood vessels (red box) Bottom left: High magnification shows dense tau immunoreactive NFTs around small blood vessels (holes) and extensive tau immunoreactive neurites in the neuropil immediately surrounding the area Daneshvar DH, Goldstein LE, Kiernan PT, Stein TD, McKee AC. Post-traumatic neurodegeneration and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2015 May; 66(Pt B):81-90
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  • Winter '14
  • Heath
  • Kandel, Principles of Neural Science

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