Chapter-6 Part-A.pptx - Chapter – 6 Spring – 2018 Part...

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Chapter – 6 Part – A Chapter – 6 Part – A Spring – 2018 Dr. Jay Gilbert Spring – 2018 Dr. Jay Gilbert
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Acids and Bases The original distinction of acids and bases was based, hazardously, on criteria of taste and feel. Acids were sour and bases felt slippery. Deeper chemical understanding of acids emerged from Arrhenius (1884) concept that acids produce hydrogen ions in water. H + (aq) + H 2 O H 3 O + (aq) Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) According to Arrhenius, a base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH ) in aqueous solution.
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According to Bronsted-Lowry theory acid is a species that loses hydrogen ions and base is a species that accepts the hydrogen ion. H 3 O + + NO 2 H 2 O + HNO 2 Acid Base Conjugate Acid Conjugate Base A strong acid would have a weak conjugate acid and a strong base would have a weak conjugate base. Brønsted-Lowry Theory
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Acid-base theories over the years:
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The Hydronium Ion We know that when an acid donates a proton to water the hydronium ion, H 3 O + , is formed. However, the formula for the hydronium ion is oversimplified. The protonated water participates in extensive hydrogen bonding and the hydronium ion is better represented as H 9 O 4 + . Gas phase studies using mass spectroscopy suggests that a cluster of water molecules surround the H 3 O + species, with dodecahedral arrangement with the formation of H + (H 2 O) 21 .
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Solvents In order to be a good solvent, the solvent-solute interactions should be strong enough to overcome the lattice energy.
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Highly polar tend to dissolve ionic compounds and solvents with low polarity are good in dissolving non-polar compounds.
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  • Summer '14
  • KF, Hydronium Ion, Hsol

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