CHAP19.PDF - An Eraof European Imperialism 1800–1914 The...

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574 eriod in Perspective An Era of European Imperialism 1800–1914 The period of world history from 1800 to 1914 was char- acterized by two major developments: the growth of industrialization and Western domination of the world. The Industrial Revolution became one of the major forces for change, leading Western civilization into the industrial era that has characterized the modern world. At the same time, the Industrial Revolution created the technological means, including new weapons, by which the West achieved domination over much of the rest of the world. Primary Sources Library See pages 996–997 for primary source readings to accompany Unit 4. Use The World History Primary Source Document Library CD-ROM to find additional primary sources about An Era of European Imperialism. The Zulu lodging Zulu king Cetewayo meeting with British ambassadors
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“The world’s surface limited, therefore the object should be to ta much of it as possible —Cecil John Rhodes
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576 Industrialization The rise of industry changed the world forever. So dramatic we the changes that historians have labeled the period the Industr Revolution. Although the revolution began in Britain, it eventua touched every nation on Earth. 1705 Thomas Newcomen invents the steam engine 1769 James Watt makes the steam engine more efficient 1787 Edmund Cartwright develops a power loom Great Britain Workshop of the World The birth of industry needed certain preconditions: the technology, incentive, and money to build machines; a labor force to run them; raw materials and markets to make the system profitable; and efficient farms to feed a new group of workers. By the early 1700s, Great Britain possessed all these conditions. Industry grew from the innovations of individuals who developed machines to do work formerly done by humans and animals. Inventors built upon each other’s ideas. For example, in 1769 James Watt improved  upon Thomas Newcomen’s primitive steam engine. Other inventors  then adapted Watt’s engine to run cloth-making machines. Business  owners soon brought machines and workers together in factories. By the 1800s, industry had catapulted Great Britain into a  position of world leadership. “[Britain has] triumphantly  established herself as the workshop of the world,” boasted  one leader. Soon, however, America would be humming with its own workshops. James Watt’s steam engine
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577 Japan The Search for Markets In 1853, the Industrial Revolution traveled to Japan in the form of a fleet of United States steamships sent to open the islands to trade. “What we had taken as a fire at sea,” recalled one Japanese observer, “was really smoke coming out of the smokestacks.” The military power produced by United States industry shook the Japanese. They temporarily gave in to American trade
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