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Unformatted text preview: World War II 1939–1945 Key Events As you read this chapter, look for the key events in the history of World War II. • Adolf Hitler’s philosophy of Aryan superiority led to World War II in Europe and was also the source of the Holocaust. • Two separate and opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis, waged a worldwide wa • World War II left lasting impressions on civilian populations. The Impact Today The events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today. • By the end of World War II, the balance of power had shifted away from Europe. • Germany and Japan’s search for expanded “living space” is comparable to nations fighting over borders today. • Atomic weapons pose a threat to all nations. World History VideoThe Chapter 26 video, “The Holocaust,” illustrates the horrors of Hitler’s Final Solution. 1939 Britain and France declare war when Germany invades Poland 1936 Germany signs separate pacts with Italy and Japan 1935 1936 1935 Hitler violates Treaty of Versailles 806 1937 1938 Adolf Hitler and Nazi officers in Paris, 1940 1939 1940 1940 France falls to Germany The Marine Corps War Memorial in Arlington County, Virginia, depicts marines raising the American flag on Iwo Jima in February 1945. Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima Self-Portrait with a Jewish Identity Card by Felix Nussbaum, 1943 1945 Japanese surrender after United States drops atomic bombs on Japan 1942 Nazi death camps in full operation 1941 1942 1941 United States enters war after Japan attacks Pearl Harbor 1943 1944 1945 1946 1945 1946 Germany Churchill surrenders proclaims existence of “iron curtain” Soldiers and civiliansin Europe HISTORY Chapter Overview Visit the Glencoe World History Web site at wh.glencoe.com and click on Chapter 26–Chapter Overview to preview chapter information. celebrate VE-Day, Paris 807 Poster, c. 1938, which proclaims “One People, one State, one Leader!” After becoming dictator in 1933, Hitler often held large rallies to inspire the loyalty of Germans. Hitler’s Vision O n February 3, 1933, Adolf Hitler met secretly with Germany’s leading generals. He had been appointed chancellor of Germany only four days before and was by no means assured that he would remain in office for long. Nevertheless, he spoke with confidence. Hitler told the generals about his desire to remove the “cancer of democracy,” create “the highest authoritarian state leadership,” and forge a new domestic unity. All Germans would need to realize that “only a struggle can save us and that everything else must be subordinated to this idea.” The youth especially would have to be trained and their wills strengthened “to fight with all means.” Hitler went on to say that Germany must rearm by institut­ ing a military draft. Leaders must ensure that the men who were going to be drafted were not “poisoned by pacifism, Marxism, or Bolshevism.” Once Germany had regained its military strength, how should this strength be used? Hitler had an answer. Because Germany’s living space was too small for its people, it must prepare for “the conquest of new living space in the east and its ruthless Germanization.” Even before he had consolidated his power, Hitler had a clear vision of his goals. Reaching those goals meant another European war. Although World War I has been described as a total war, World War II was even more so. It was fought on a scale unprecedented in history and led to the most widespread human­made destruction that the world had ever seen. 808 Why It Matters World War II in Europe was clearly Hitler’s war. Other countries may have helped make the war possible by not resisting Germany earlier, before it grew strong, but it was Nazi Germany’s actions that made the war inevitable. Globally, World War II was more than just Hitler’s war. It consisted of two conflicts. One arose, as mentioned above, from the ambitions of Germany in Europe. The other arose from the ambitions of Japan in Asia. By 1941, with the involvement of the United States in both conflicts, these two conflicts merged into one global world war. History and You The decision by the United States to use atomic bombs against Japan led to the end of World War II. Find two contrasting views on the potential of nuclear warfare today and analyze the perspectives. Paths to War Guide to Reading Main Ideas People to Identify Reading Strategy • Adolf Hitler’s theory of Aryan racial Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Categorizing Information Create a chart domination laid the foundation for Stalin, Chiang Kai-shek listing examples of Japanese aggression aggressive expansion outside of and German aggression prior to the out Places to Locate Germany. break of World War II. Rhineland, Sudetenland, Manchukuo • The actions and ambitions of Japan Japanese Aggression German Aggression and Germany paved the way for the Preview Questions outbreak of World War II. 1. What agreement was reached at the Munich Conference? 2. Why did Germany believe it needed demilitarized, appeasement, sanction more land? Key Terms Preview of Events 1931 1932 1933 1931 Japanese forces invade Manchuria 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1936 1937 1938 1939 Hitler and Mussolini Japanese seize Hitler annexes World War II create Rome-Berlin Axis Chinese capital Austria begins Voices from the Pas After the leaders of France and Great Britain gave in to Hitler’s demands o slovakia in 1938, Winston Churchill spoke to the British House of Commons: I will begin by saying what everybody would like to ignore or forget but w “ must nevertheless be stated, namely, that we have sustained a total and un defeat. . . . And I will say this, that I believe the Czechs, left to themselves an were going to get no help from the Western Powers, would have been able t better terms than they have got. . . . We are in the presence of a disaster of magnitude which has befallen Great Britain and France. . . . And do not supp this is the end. This is only the beginning of the reckoning. ” —Parliamentary Debates, London, 1938 Winston Churchill Churchill believed that Hitler’s actions would lead to another war. He prov be right. The German Path to War World War II in Europe had its beginnings in the ideas of Adolf Hitler. He believed that Aryans, particularly Germans, were superior to all other races and nationalities. Consequently, Hitler believed that Germany was capable of building a great civilization. To be a great power, however, Germany needed more land to support a larger population. Already in the 1920s, Hitler had indicated that a Nazi regime would find this land to the east—in the Soviet Union. Germany therefore must prepare for war with the Soviet Union. Once the Soviet Union had been conquered, according to Hitler, its land would be resettled by German peasants. The Slavic peoples could CHAPTER 26 World War II 809 be used as slave labor to build the Third Reich, an Aryan racial state that Hitler thought would domi­ nate Europe for a thousand years. After World War I, the Treaty of Ver­ The First Steps sailles had limited Germany’s military power. As chancellor, Hitler, posing as a man of peace, stressed that Germany wished to revise the unfair provisions of the treaty by peaceful means. Germany, he said, only wanted its rightful place among the European states. On March 9, 1935, however, Hitler announced the creation of a new air force. One week later, he began a military draft that would expand Germany’s army from 100,000 to 550,000 troops. These steps were in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles. France, Great Britain, and Italy condemned Ger­ many’s actions and warned against future aggressive steps. In the midst of the Great Depression, however, these nations were distracted by their own internal problems and did nothing further. Hitler was convinced that the Western states had no intention of using force to maintain the Treaty of Versailles. Hence, on March 7, 1936, he sent German troops into the Rhineland. The Rhineland was part of Germany, but, according to the Treaty of Versailles, it was a demilitarized area. That is, Germany was not permitted to have weapons or fortifications there. France had the right to use force against any violation of the demilitarized Rhineland but would not act without British support. Great Britain did not support the use of force against Germany, however. The British government viewed the occupation of German territory by Ger­ man troops as a reasonable action by a dissatisfied power. The London Times noted that the Germans were only “going into their own back garden.” Great Britain thus began to practice a policy of appeasement. This policy was based on the belief that if European states satisfied the reasonable demands of dissatisfied powers, the dissatisfied powers would be content, and stability and peace would be achieved in Europe. New AlliancesMeanwhile, Hitler gained new allies. Benito Mussolini had long dreamed of creat­ ing a new Roman Empire in the Mediterranean, and, in October 1935, Fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia. Angered by French and British opposition to his invasion, Mussolini welcomed Hitler’s support. He began to draw closer to the German dictator. In 1936, both Germany and Italy sent troops to Spain to help General Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War. In October 1936, Mussolini and Hitler made an agreement recognizing their common political and economic interests. One month later, Mussolini spoke of the new alliance between Italy and Germany, called the Rome­Berlin Axis. Also in November, Germany and Japan signed the Anti­Comintern Pact, promising a common front against communism. By 1937, Germany was once Union with Austria more a “world power,” as Hitler proclaimed. He was convinced that neither France nor Great Britain would provide much opposition to his plans. In 1938, he decided to pursue one of his goals: Anschluss (ANSH•luhs), or union, with Austria, his native land. By threatening Austria with invasion, Hitler forced the Austrian chancellor to put Austrian Nazis in charge of the government. The new government promptly invited German troops to enter Austria and “help” in maintaining law and order. One day later, on March 13, 1938, after his triumphal return to his native land, Hitler annexed Austria to Germany. History This 1937 Italian illustration depicts Hitler and Mussolini. What ideology brought Hitler and Mussolini together? 810 German and Italian Expansion, 1935–1939 UNITED KINGDOM 10E20SWEDEN North Sea DENMARK Danzig FRANCE LUX. LITHUANIA EAST PRUSSIA Berlin SUDETEN Prague POLAND Germany and Italy expanded their territories in the years leading up to World War II. LA N CZECHOS D S LO LOVAK I A VAK I A Vienna Munich SWITZ. SOVIET UNION Warsaw GERMANY D LAN NE Paris I RH BELGIUM E Sea NETHER– LANDS 50N LATVIA E30 MEMEL Baltic TERR. AUSTRIA HUNGARY ROMANIA Germany, 1935 Sardinia ALBANIA SUD A N GREECE Sicily Addis Ababa 10N ETHIOPIA N W ERI TR EA Mediterranean Sea KENYA 0 E 0 S 0 LIBYA L LI I A N LA ND BULGARIA Rome 40N German occupation, 1936 German acquisitions, 1938–1939 Italy and possessions, 1935 Italian acquisitions, 1935–1939 YUGOSLAVIA ITALY Corsica A I T MA O 500 miles S 500 kilometers 0 50E 500 miles 500 kilometers 0 Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection 1. Interpreting Maps Approximately how much territory did Germany annex between 1936 and 1939? How did its size in 1939 compare to its size in 1935? 2. Applying Geography Skills Use the information on the map to create a chart comparing German and Italian expansion. What reasons can you give for the more aggressive of the two being the more aggressive country? Demands and Appeasement Hitler’s next objec­ Great Britain and France In fact, Hitler was React tive was the destruction of Czechoslovakia. On Sep­ tember 15, 1938, he demanded that Germany be given the Sudetenland, an area in northwestern Czechoslovakia that was inhabited largely by Ger­ mans. He expressed his willingness to risk “world war” to achieve his objective. At a hastily arranged conference in Munich, British, French, German, and Italian representatives did not object to Hitler’s plans but instead reached an agreement that met virtually all of Hitler’s demands. German troops were allowed to occupy the Sudeten­ land. The Czechs, abandoned by their Western allies, stood by helplessly. The Munich Conference was the high point of Western appeasement of Hitler. When Neville Cham­ berlain, the British prime minister, returned to Eng­ land from Munich, he boasted that the agreement meant “peace for our time.” Hitler had promised Chamberlain that he would make no more demands. Like many others, Chamberlain believed Hitler’s promises. more convinced than ever that the Western democra­ cies were weak and would not fight. Increasingly, Hitler was sure that he could not make a mistake, and he had by no means been satisfied at Munich. In March 1939, Hitler invaded and took control of Bohemia and Moravia in western Czechoslovakia. In the eastern part of the country, Slovakia became a puppet state controlled by Nazi Germany. On the evening of March 15, 1939, Hitler triumphantly declared in Prague that he would be known as the greatest German of them all. At last, the Western states reacted to the Nazi threat. Hitler’s aggression had made clear that his promises were worthless. When Hitler began to demand the Polish port of Danzig, Great Britain saw the danger and offered to protect Poland in the event of war. At the same time, both France and Britain realized that only the Soviet Union was powerful enough to help contain Nazi aggression. They began political and military negotiations with Joseph Stalin, the Soviet dictator. CHAPTER 26 World War II 811 Japanese Expansion, 1933–1941 SOVIET UNION KARAFUTO 140E Reading Check Identifying Where did Hitler believe W E The Japanese Path to War Chiang Kai­shek tried to avoid a War with China conflict with Japan so that he could deal with what he considered the greater threat from the Communists. When clashes between Chinese and 812 CHAPTER 26 World War II Sea of Japan S H ua ng he could find more “living space” to expand Germany? He Beijing KOREA N 40 Yan-an CHINA Nanjing SICHUANChongqing Hankou PROVINCE n g Shanghai gJia an Ch In September 1931, Japanese soldiers had seized Manchuria, which had natural resources Japan needed. Japan used as an excuse a Chinese attack on a Japanese railway near the city of Mukden. In fact, the “Mukden incident” had been carried out by Japanese soldiers disguised as Chinese. Worldwide protests against the Japanese led the League of Nations to send investigators to Manchuria. When the investigators issued a report condemning the seizure, Japan withdrew from the league. Over the next several years, Japan strengthened its hold on Manchuria, which was renamed Manchukuo. Japan now began to expand into North China. By the mid­1930s, militants connected to the gov­ ernment and the armed forces had gained control of Japanese politics. The United States refused to recog­ nize the Japanese takeover of Manchuria but was unwilling to threaten force. MANCHUKUO N PA N on in the belief that the West would not fight over Poland. He now feared, however, that the West and the Soviet Union might make an alliance. Such an alliance could mean a two­front war for Germany. To prevent this possibility, Hitler made his own agree­ ment with Joseph Stalin. On August 23, 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed the Nazi­Soviet Nonaggression Pact. In it, the two nations promised not to attack each other. To get the nonaggression pact, Hitler offered Stalin control of eastern Poland and the Baltic states. Because he expected to fight the Soviet Union any­ way, it did not matter to Hitler what he promised— he was accustomed to breaking promises. Hitler shocked the world when he announced the nonaggression pact. The treaty gave Hitler the free­ dom to attack Poland. He told his generals, “Now Poland is in the position in which I wanted her.... I am only afraid that at the last moment some swine will submit to me a plan for mediation.” Hitler need not have worried. On September 1, German forces invaded Poland. Two days later, Britain and France declared war on Germany. Japanese troops broke out, he sought to appease Japan by allowing it to govern areas in North China. As Japan moved steadily southward, protests against Japanese aggression grew stronger in Chi­ nese cities. In December 1936, Chiang ended his mil­ itary efforts against the Communists and formed a new united front against the Japanese. In July 1937, Chinese and Japanese forces clashed south of Beijing and hostilities spread. Japan had not planned to declare war on China. However, the 1937 incident eventually turned into a major conflict. The Japanese seized the Chinese capital of Nanjing in December. Chiang Kai­shek refused to surrender and moved his government upriver, first to Hankou, then to Chongqing. JA Meanwhile, Hitler pressed Hitler and the Soviets Formosa Guangzhou U.K. Hong Kong Hainan South China FRENCH Sea INDOCHINA 110E 0 30N F IC O T ROP ER C N CA 20N Japanese territory, 1933 Japanese acquisitions to November 1941 1,000 miles 10N 0 1,000 kilometers 130E Two-Point Equidistant projection Like Germany, Japan attempted to expand its territories prior to the beginning of the war. 1. Applying Geography Skills Pose and answer your own question about the territories Japan did not acquire but wanted to acquire. Japanese military leaders The New Asian Order had hoped to force Chiang to agree to join a New Order in East Asia, comprising Japan, Manchuria, and China. Japan would attempt to establish a new system of control in Asia with Japan guiding its Asian neighbors to prosperity. After all, who could better teach Asian societies how to modernize than the one Asian country that had already done it? Part of Japan’s plan was to seize Soviet Siberia, with its rich resources. During the late 1930s, Japan began to cooperate with Nazi Germany. Japan assumed that the two countries would ultimately launch a joint attack on the Soviet Union and divide Soviet resources between them. When Germany signed the nonaggression pact with the Soviets in August 1939, Japanese leaders had to rethink their goals. Japan did not have the resources to defeat the Soviet Union without help. Thus, the Japanese became interested in the raw materials that could be foundin Southeast Asia to fuel its military machine. A move southward, however, would risk war with the European colonial powers and the United States. Japan’s attack on China in the summer of 1937 had already aroused strong criticism, especially in the United States. Nevertheless, in the summer of 1940, Japan demanded the right to exploit economic resources in French Indochina. The United States objected. It warned Japan that it would apply economic sanctions—restrictions intended to enforce international law—unless Japan Checking for Understanding Cabinet of Japanese prime minister Tojo (front center), 19 withdrew from the area and returned to its borders of 1931. Japan badly needed the oil and scrap iron it was getting from the United States. Should these resources be cut off, Japan would have to find them elsewhere. Japan viewed the possibility of economic sanctions as a threat to its long­term objectives. Japan was now caught in a dilemma. To guarantee access to the raw materials it wanted in Southeast Asia, Japan had to risk losing raw materials from the United States. After much debate, Japan decided to launch a surprise attack on U.S. and European colonies in Southeast Asia. Reading Check Explaining Why did Japan want to establish a New Order in East Asia? Critical Thinking Analyzing Visuals 1. Define appeasement, demilitarized, 6. Explain In what sense was World8. Analyze the illustration on page 810 to sanction. War II a product of World War I? determine what opinion the artist had about Italy’s alliance with Germany. 2. Identify Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, 7. Sequencing Informat...
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