Unformatted text preview: World War II
Key Events As you read this chapter, look for the key events in the history of World War II.
• Adolf Hitler’s philosophy of Aryan superiority led to World War II in Europe and was
also the source of the Holocaust.
• Two separate and opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis, waged a worldwide wa
• World War II left lasting impressions on civilian populations. The Impact Today
The events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.
• By the end of World War II, the balance of power had shifted away from Europe.
• Germany and Japan’s search for expanded “living space” is comparable to nations
fighting over borders today.
• Atomic weapons pose a threat to all nations. World History VideoThe Chapter 26 video, “The Holocaust,”
illustrates the horrors of Hitler’s Final Solution. 1939
invades Poland 1936
separate pacts with
Italy and Japan 1935 1936 1935
Versailles 806 1937 1938 Adolf Hitler and Nazi
officers in Paris, 1940 1939 1940
to Germany The Marine Corps War Memorial in Arlington County, Virginia, depicts marines raising the American flag
on Iwo Jima in February 1945.
Atomic bomb dropped
on Hiroshima Self-Portrait with a
Jewish Identity Card by
Felix Nussbaum, 1943 1945
after United States
drops atomic bombs
on Japan 1942
Nazi death camps
in full operation 1941 1942 1941
enters war after
Pearl Harbor 1943 1944 1945 1946 1945
Soldiers and civiliansin Europe HISTORY
Visit the Glencoe World
History Web site at
on Chapter 26–Chapter
Overview to preview
chapter information. celebrate VE-Day, Paris 807 Poster, c. 1938,
“One People, one
State, one Leader!” After becoming dictator in 1933, Hitler often held
large rallies to inspire the loyalty of Germans. Hitler’s Vision O n February 3, 1933, Adolf Hitler met secretly with
Germany’s leading generals. He had been appointed
chancellor of Germany only four days before and was by no means assured that he would remain in office for long.
Nevertheless, he spoke with confidence.
Hitler told the generals about his desire to remove the
“cancer of democracy,” create “the highest authoritarian state
leadership,” and forge a new domestic unity. All Germans
would need to realize that “only a struggle can save us and
that everything else must be subordinated to this idea.” The
youth especially would have to be trained and their wills
strengthened “to fight with all means.”
Hitler went on to say that Germany must rearm by institut
ing a military draft. Leaders must ensure that the men who
were going to be drafted were not “poisoned by pacifism,
Marxism, or Bolshevism.” Once Germany had regained its
military strength, how should this strength be used? Hitler
had an answer. Because Germany’s living space was too small
for its people, it must prepare for “the conquest of new living
space in the east and its ruthless Germanization.”
Even before he had consolidated his power, Hitler had a
clear vision of his goals. Reaching those goals meant another
European war. Although World War I has been described as a
total war, World War II was even more so. It was fought on a
scale unprecedented in history and led to the most widespread
humanmade destruction that the world had ever seen. 808 Why It Matters
World War II in Europe was clearly
Hitler’s war. Other countries may
have helped make the war possible
by not resisting Germany earlier,
before it grew strong, but it was
Nazi Germany’s actions that made
the war inevitable. Globally, World
War II was more than just Hitler’s
war. It consisted of two conflicts.
One arose, as mentioned above,
from the ambitions of Germany in
Europe. The other arose from the
ambitions of Japan in Asia. By 1941,
with the involvement of the United
States in both conflicts, these two
conflicts merged into one global
world war. History and You
by the United States to use atomic
bombs against Japan led to the end
of World War II. Find two contrasting views on the potential of nuclear
warfare today and analyze the
perspectives. Paths to War
Guide to Reading
Main Ideas People to Identify Reading Strategy • Adolf Hitler’s theory of Aryan racial
Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph
Categorizing Information Create a chart
domination laid the foundation for
Stalin, Chiang Kai-shek
listing examples of Japanese aggression
aggressive expansion outside of
and German aggression prior to the out
Places to Locate
break of World War II.
Rhineland, Sudetenland, Manchukuo
• The actions and ambitions of Japan
and Germany paved the way for the
outbreak of World War II.
1. What agreement was reached at the
Why did Germany believe it needed
demilitarized, appeasement, sanction
more land? Key Terms Preview of Events 1931 1932 1933
invade Manchuria 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1936
Hitler and Mussolini Japanese seize Hitler annexes World War II
create Rome-Berlin Axis
Chinese capital Austria
begins Voices from the Pas After the leaders of France and Great Britain gave in to Hitler’s demands o
slovakia in 1938, Winston Churchill spoke to the British House of Commons: I will begin by saying what everybody would like to ignore or forget but w
must nevertheless be stated, namely, that we have sustained a total and un defeat. . . . And I will say this, that I believe the Czechs, left to themselves an
were going to get no help from the Western Powers, would have been able t
better terms than they have got. . . . We are in the presence of a disaster of
magnitude which has befallen Great Britain and France. . . . And do not supp
this is the end. This is only the beginning of the reckoning. ” —Parliamentary Debates, London, 1938
Winston Churchill Churchill believed that Hitler’s actions would lead to another war. He prov
be right. The German Path to War
World War II in Europe had its beginnings in the ideas of Adolf Hitler.
believed that Aryans, particularly Germans, were superior to all other races and
nationalities. Consequently, Hitler believed that Germany was capable of building
a great civilization. To be a great power, however, Germany needed more land to
support a larger population.
Already in the 1920s, Hitler had indicated that a Nazi regime would find this
land to the east—in the Soviet Union. Germany therefore must prepare for war
with the Soviet Union. Once the Soviet Union had been conquered, according to
Hitler, its land would be resettled by German peasants. The Slavic peoples could
CHAPTER 26 World War II 809 be used as slave labor to build the Third Reich, an
Aryan racial state that Hitler thought would domi
nate Europe for a thousand years.
After World War I, the Treaty of Ver
The First Steps
sailles had limited Germany’s military power. As
chancellor, Hitler, posing as a man of peace, stressed
that Germany wished to revise the unfair provisions
of the treaty by peaceful means. Germany, he said,
only wanted its rightful place among the European
On March 9, 1935, however, Hitler announced the
creation of a new air force. One week later, he began
a military draft that would expand Germany’s army
from 100,000 to 550,000 troops. These steps were in
direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
France, Great Britain, and Italy condemned Ger
many’s actions and warned against future aggressive
steps. In the midst of the Great Depression, however,
these nations were distracted by their own internal
problems and did nothing further.
Hitler was convinced that the Western states had
no intention of using force to maintain the Treaty of
Versailles. Hence, on March 7, 1936, he sent German
troops into the Rhineland. The Rhineland was part
of Germany, but, according to the Treaty of Versailles,
it was a demilitarized area. That is, Germany was
not permitted to have weapons or fortifications there.
France had the right to use force against
any violation of the demilitarized Rhineland but would not act without
Great Britain did not support the use of force
against Germany, however. The British government
viewed the occupation of German territory by Ger
man troops as a reasonable action by a dissatisfied
power. The London Times noted that the Germans
were only “going into their own back garden.”
Great Britain thus began to practice a policy of
appeasement. This policy was based on the belief
that if European states satisfied the reasonable
demands of dissatisfied powers, the dissatisfied
powers would be content, and stability and peace
would be achieved in Europe. New AlliancesMeanwhile, Hitler gained new
allies. Benito Mussolini had long dreamed of creat
ing a new Roman Empire in the Mediterranean, and,
in October 1935, Fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia.
Angered by French and British opposition to his
invasion, Mussolini welcomed Hitler’s support. He
began to draw closer to the German dictator.
In 1936, both Germany and Italy sent troops to
Spain to help General Francisco Franco in the Spanish
Civil War. In October 1936, Mussolini and Hitler made
an agreement recognizing their common political and
economic interests. One month later, Mussolini spoke
of the new alliance between Italy and Germany, called
the RomeBerlin Axis. Also in November, Germany
and Japan signed the AntiComintern Pact, promising
a common front against communism.
By 1937, Germany was once
Union with Austria
more a “world power,” as Hitler proclaimed. He was
convinced that neither France nor Great Britain
would provide much opposition to his plans. In 1938,
he decided to pursue one of his goals: Anschluss
(ANSH•luhs), or union, with Austria, his native land.
By threatening Austria with invasion, Hitler forced
the Austrian chancellor to put Austrian Nazis in
charge of the government. The new government
promptly invited German troops to enter Austria and
“help” in maintaining law and order. One day later,
on March 13, 1938, after his triumphal return to his
native land, Hitler annexed Austria to Germany. History This 1937 Italian illustration depicts Hitler
What ideology brought
Hitler and Mussolini together? 810 German and Italian Expansion, 1935–1939
KINGDOM 10E20SWEDEN North
Sea DENMARK Danzig FRANCE LUX. LITHUANIA EAST
SUDETEN Prague POLAND Germany and Italy
expanded their territories
in the years leading up to
World War II. LA N
CZECHOS D S
LO LOVAK I A
VAK I A
UNION Warsaw GERMANY D
NE Paris I
RH BELGIUM E Sea NETHER–
50N LATVIA E30 MEMEL
Baltic TERR. AUSTRIA HUNGARY ROMANIA
Germany, 1935 Sardinia ALBANIA SUD
A N GREECE
Ababa 10N ETHIOPIA N
W ERI TR
EA Mediterranean Sea KENYA
0 E 0 S
0 LIBYA L
LI I A N
ND BULGARIA Rome 40N German occupation, 1936
Italy and possessions, 1935
1935–1939 YUGOSLAVIA ITALY
I T MA
O 500 miles S 500 kilometers 0
50E 500 miles 500 kilometers
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection 1. Interpreting Maps
much territory did
Germany annex between
1936 and 1939? How did
its size in 1939 compare
to its size in 1935?
2. Applying Geography
Skills Use the information on the map to create a chart comparing
German and Italian
expansion. What reasons
can you give for the
more aggressive of the
two being the more
aggressive country? Demands and Appeasement
Hitler’s next objec Great Britain and France In fact, Hitler was
React tive was the destruction of Czechoslovakia. On Sep
tember 15, 1938, he demanded that Germany be
given the Sudetenland, an area in northwestern
Czechoslovakia that was inhabited largely by Ger
mans. He expressed his willingness to risk “world
war” to achieve his objective. At a hastily arranged conference in Munich,
British, French, German, and Italian representatives
did not object to Hitler’s plans but instead reached an
agreement that met virtually all of Hitler’s demands.
German troops were allowed to occupy the Sudeten
land. The Czechs, abandoned by their Western allies,
stood by helplessly.
The Munich Conference was the high point of
Western appeasement of Hitler. When Neville Cham
berlain, the British prime minister, returned to Eng
land from Munich, he boasted that the agreement
meant “peace for our time.” Hitler had promised
Chamberlain that he would make no more demands.
Like many others, Chamberlain believed Hitler’s
promises. more convinced than ever that the Western democra
cies were weak and would not fight. Increasingly,
Hitler was sure that he could not make a mistake,
and he had by no means been satisfied at Munich.
In March 1939, Hitler invaded and took control of
Bohemia and Moravia in western Czechoslovakia. In
the eastern part of the country, Slovakia became a
puppet state controlled by Nazi Germany. On the
evening of March 15, 1939, Hitler triumphantly
declared in Prague that he would be known as the
greatest German of them all.
At last, the Western states reacted to the Nazi
threat. Hitler’s aggression had made clear that his
promises were worthless. When Hitler began to
demand the Polish port of Danzig, Great Britain saw
the danger and offered to protect Poland in the event
of war. At the same time, both France and Britain
realized that only the Soviet Union was powerful
enough to help contain Nazi aggression. They began
political and military negotiations with Joseph
Stalin, the Soviet dictator.
CHAPTER 26 World War II 811 Japanese Expansion,
140E Reading Check Identifying
Where did Hitler believe W E The Japanese Path to War Chiang Kaishek tried to avoid a
War with China
conflict with Japan so that he could deal with what
he considered the greater threat from the Communists. When clashes between Chinese and
812 CHAPTER 26 World War II Sea of
ng he could find more “living space” to expand Germany? He Beijing
40 Yan-an CHINA Nanjing SICHUANChongqing
PROVINCE n g Shanghai gJia
an Ch In September 1931, Japanese soldiers had seized
Manchuria, which had natural resources Japan
needed. Japan used as an excuse a Chinese attack on
a Japanese railway near the city of Mukden. In fact,
the “Mukden incident” had been carried out by
Japanese soldiers disguised as Chinese.
Worldwide protests against the Japanese led the
League of Nations to send investigators to Manchuria.
When the investigators issued a report condemning
the seizure, Japan withdrew from the league. Over
the next several years, Japan strengthened its hold on
Manchuria, which was renamed Manchukuo. Japan
now began to expand into North China.
By the mid1930s, militants connected to the gov
ernment and the armed forces had gained control of
Japanese politics. The United States refused to recog
nize the Japanese takeover of Manchuria but was
unwilling to threaten force. MANCHUKUO N PA N on in the belief that the West would not fight over
Poland. He now feared, however, that the West and
the Soviet Union might make an alliance. Such an
alliance could mean a twofront war for Germany. To
prevent this possibility, Hitler made his own agree
ment with Joseph Stalin.
On August 23, 1939, Germany and the Soviet
Union signed the NaziSoviet Nonaggression Pact. In
it, the two nations promised not to attack each other.
To get the nonaggression pact, Hitler offered Stalin
control of eastern Poland and the Baltic states.
Because he expected to fight the Soviet Union any
way, it did not matter to Hitler what he promised—
he was accustomed to breaking promises.
Hitler shocked the world when he announced the
nonaggression pact. The treaty gave Hitler the free
dom to attack Poland. He told his generals, “Now
Poland is in the position in which I wanted her.... I
am only afraid that at the last moment some swine
will submit to me a plan for mediation.”
Hitler need not have worried. On September 1,
German forces invaded Poland. Two days later,
Britain and France declared war on Germany. Japanese troops broke out, he sought to appease
Japan by allowing it to govern areas in North China.
As Japan moved steadily southward, protests
against Japanese aggression grew stronger in Chi
nese cities. In December 1936, Chiang ended his mil
itary efforts against the Communists and formed a
new united front against the Japanese. In July 1937,
Chinese and Japanese forces clashed south of Beijing
and hostilities spread.
Japan had not planned to declare war on China.
However, the 1937 incident eventually turned into a
major conflict. The Japanese seized the Chinese capital
of Nanjing in December. Chiang Kaishek refused to
surrender and moved his government upriver, first to
Hankou, then to Chongqing. JA Meanwhile, Hitler pressed
Hitler and the Soviets Formosa Guangzhou
Hong Kong Hainan
110E 0 30N F
T ROP ER
20N Japanese territory, 1933
to November 1941
Two-Point Equidistant projection Like Germany, Japan attempted to expand its territories
prior to the beginning of the war.
1. Applying Geography Skills Pose and answer your
own question about the territories Japan did not
acquire but wanted to acquire. Japanese military leaders
The New Asian Order
had hoped to force Chiang to agree to join a New
Order in East Asia, comprising Japan, Manchuria,
and China. Japan would attempt to establish a new
system of control in Asia with Japan guiding its
Asian neighbors to prosperity. After all, who could
better teach Asian societies how to modernize than
the one Asian country that had already done it?
Part of Japan’s plan was to seize Soviet Siberia,
with its rich resources. During the late 1930s, Japan
began to cooperate with Nazi Germany. Japan
assumed that the two countries would ultimately
launch a joint attack on the Soviet Union and divide
Soviet resources between them.
When Germany signed the nonaggression pact
with the Soviets in August 1939, Japanese leaders
had to rethink their goals. Japan did not have the
resources to defeat the Soviet Union without help.
Thus, the Japanese became interested in the raw
materials that could be foundin Southeast Asia to
fuel its military machine.
A move southward, however, would risk war with
the European colonial powers and the United States.
Japan’s attack on China in the summer of 1937 had
already aroused strong criticism, especially in the
United States. Nevertheless, in the summer of 1940,
Japan demanded the right to exploit economic
resources in French Indochina.
The United States objected. It warned Japan that it
would apply economic sanctions—restrictions
intended to enforce international law—unless Japan Checking for Understanding Cabinet of Japanese prime minister Tojo (front center), 19 withdrew from the area and returned to its borders of
1931. Japan badly needed the oil and scrap iron it was
getting from the United States. Should these
resources be cut off, Japan would have to find them
elsewhere. Japan viewed the possibility of economic
sanctions as a threat to its longterm objectives.
Japan was now caught in a dilemma. To guarantee
access to the raw materials it wanted in Southeast
Asia, Japan had to risk losing raw materials from the
United States. After much debate, Japan decided to
launch a surprise attack on U.S. and European
colonies in Southeast Asia. Reading Check Explaining
Why did Japan want to
establish a New Order in East Asia? Critical Thinking Analyzing Visuals 1. Define appeasement, demilitarized,
6. Explain In what sense was World8. Analyze the illustration on page 810 to
War II a product of World War I?
determine what opinion the artist had
about Italy’s alliance with Germany.
2. Identify Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini,
7. Sequencing Informat...
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