# T2_2018_MAA753_Topic 4 (1).pptx - 1 TOPIC 4 The Research...

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TOPIC 4 The Research Process (III): Operationalization and Execution 1
Measurement Issues 2
Levels of scale measurement Business researchers use many scales or number systems. The four levels or types of scale measurement are nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio level scales. 17
Nominal scale Represents the most elementary level of measurement in which values are assigned to an object for identification or classification purposes only. In this scale the different scores on a measurement simply indicate different categories . The nominal scale is often referred to as a categorical scale. The assigned numbers have no arithmetic properties and act only as labels. 18
Nominal scale A researcher interested in examining the production efficiency of a company’s different plants might refer to them as “Plant 1,” “Plant 2,” and so forth. Nominal scaling is arbitrary. 19
Ordinal Scale Ranking scales allowing things to be arranged based on how much of some characteristic they possess . The main characteristic of the ordinal scale is that the categories have a logical or ordered relationship . This type of scale permits the measurement of degrees of difference , (i.e. ‘more’ or ‘less’) but not the specific amount of differences (i.e. how much ‘more’ or ‘less’). 20
Ordinal Scale In a race, placing a value 1 indicates the winner and 2 refers to the athlete who came after the winner. For example , a fast food home delivery shop may wish to ask its customers: How would you rate the service of our staff? (1) Excellent (2) Very Good (3) Good (4) Poor (5) Worst 21
Interval Scale Scales that have both nominal and ordinal properties , and also capture information about differences in quantities of a concept from one observation to the next. An interval scale also allows one to compare the difference/distance between attributes. 22
Interval Scale If a professor assigns grades to term papers using a numbering system ranging from 1.0–20.0, not only does the scale represent the fact that a student with a 16.0 outperformed a student with 8.0 , but the scale would show by how much ( 8.0 ). 23
Ratio Scale Represent the highest form of measurement in that they have all the properties of interval scales with the additional attribute of representing absolute quantities ; characterized by a meaningful absolute zero. Examples: height in centimeters; weight in tonnes 24
Criteria for a Good Measurement Reliability, validity, sensitivity 25
Reliability A measurement procedure is said to have reliability if it produces identical ( or nearly identical) results when it is used repeatedly to measure the same individual under the same conditions. 3 types of reliability Successive measurements Simultaneous measurements Internal consistency 26
Successive measurements Obtaining scores from two successive measurements and calculating a correlation between them The same group, the same measurement at two different times Test-retest reliability 27
Simultaneous measurements Obtained by direct observation of behaviors (