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Written Task 1 Iranian Hackers' Cyberattacks Introduction: This report is about a news event in which the Department of Justice indicted 9 Iranians for cyberattacks on hundreds of US universities. This news event happened on 23 March 2018. According to The United States Department of Justice’s press release, 9 Iranian hackers backed by Mabna Institute, an Iran -based company, since at least 2013, were continuously attacking computer systems of 144 U.S. universities, 76 universities across 21 countries, 47 foreign and domestic private companies, the U.S. Department of Labor, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the State of Hawaii, the State of Indiana, the State of United Nations, and the United Nation’s Children Fund . They stole 31 terabytes of academic data from universities and private companies (The United States Department of Justice 2018). Techniques Used in Attacks: The Justice Department mentioned two techniques used by 9 Iranian hackers to attack universities and private companies. These techniques are Spear phishing and Password Spraying (Wired 2018). According to Zhurin and Komarkov (2018, p. 96), spear phishing is a technique in which email is sent to a target
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