Applying Design Thinking to Public Service Delivery.pdf

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Jeanne Liedtka University of Virginia Darden School of Business Randall Salzman University of Virginia Darden School of Business IBM Center for The Business of Government Applying Design Thinking To Public Service Delivery
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Applying Design Thinking To Public Service Delivery Jeanne Liedtka University of Virginia Darden School of Business Randall Salzman University of Virginia Darden School of Business
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3 APPLYING DESIGN THINKING TO PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword 4 Executive Summary 5 Introduction 9 PART I: Design Thinking 101 12 Five Core Elements of Design Thinking and their Impacts 13 Element One: Understanding User Needs and Context through Empathy 13 Element Two: Formation of Diverse Teams 14 Element Three: Dialogue versus Debate 15 Element Four: Iterative and Experimental Process 16 Element Five: Structured Process and Tool Kit 17 PART II: Design Thinking In Action 21 Case One: Engaging Frontline Employees at HHS 22 Case Two: Improving Solution Quality at the Good Kitchen 25 Case Three: Aligning Diverse Stakeholder Groups at the FDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Case Four: Fostering Experimentation and Change at MasAgro 31 Diffusing Design Thinking 33 PART III: Advice For Executives 36 Is Design Thinking Teachable and Scalable? 37 Using Design Thinking to Drive Innovation in Your Organization 37 Provide a Structured Methodology and Tool Kit 37 Offer the Opportunity to Learn It Well 38 Provide Necessary Infrastructure and Resources 38 Align Culture to Support 40 Conclusion 41 Appendix 42 For further reading 43 About the Authors 44 Key Contact Information 47 Reports from the IBM Center for The Business of Government 48
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4 APPLYING DESIGN THINKING TO PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY IBM Center for The Business of Government Every day, U .S . government entities interact with millions of citizens to execute their core missions . And while missions vary among orga- nizations, all agencies serve the citizen—including the taxpayer, the traveler, the veteran, and the student . Serving the citizenry has always has been a foundation of our government . Today, rapidly advancing technological innovations are fundamentally changing user expectations . The last best experience that anyone has becomes the minimum expectation for the next experience . With these changing dynamics as a backdrop, organizations must begin to reimagine how they innovate, operate, and engage with clients, employees, and stakeholders . The term “design thinking” often conjures up an image of fashion design, or a sleek new tech device . But design thinking, as under- scored in this report, is changing how humans collectively contribute creative ideas to help organizations develop and advance innovation . Elements of design thinking include creating empathy with users, using a discipline of prototyping, and having a tolerance for failure .
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