Behavior Analysis.docx - Chapter 1 A science of behavior...

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Chapter 1: A science of behavior There is more scientific data supporting behavioral psychology compared to other views. With an education in behavior analysis, you can get a job as soon as you graduate using Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Very lucrative jobs as well!!! Covering all psychological theories doesn’t allow you to learn enough about any one theory. Behavior Analysis is a comprehensive approach to the study of the behavior of organisms. Focus on Environment-Behavior relationships Organisms change their behavior to accommodate for a changing environment When an organism learns new ways of behaving in reaction to the changes that occur in its environment, conditioning occurs. Experimental analysis is concerned with controlling and changing the factors affecting the behavior of humans and other animals. Behavior analysis is based on learning. Three Categories Behavior Analysis can be divided into three distinct categories: 1. Behaviorism (Foundations/Principles/Theories) Philosophy of the science of behavior Assumes behavior is a function of current and past environments, as well as genetics 2. Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB) Is a natural-science approach to the understanding the regulation of behavior Basic research is the tenant of EAB, and usually done with animals. 3. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Is the use of behavior principles to solve practical problems Takes results of research and applies it to real situations; typically with individuals or groups of people. Assumptions of Science Determinism : It is assumed that behavior is caused by some event(s). The universe is lawful and orderly (there is a reason for everything, even if we do not know it yet). Empiricism: Information is collected by objective observations; all scientific knowledge is based on this. Philosophic Doubt: Conclusions of science are tentative and can be revised as new data and discoveries come to light. Scientists continue to question what is known as “facts”. EX: Pluto lost its status as a planet. Law of Parsimony: When possible, the simplest explanation of behavior should be provided, all else being equal Scientific manipulation : To see if an event affects behavior, that event is systematically manipulated and the effects on behavior are noted (emphasized in experimental designs). Learning Learning refers to the acquisition, maintenance, and change of an organism’s behavior as a result of lifetime events.
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Behavior Analysis is the study of how organisms learn. The terms “learning” and “conditioning” are interchangeable. What is a stimulus? A stimulus is any environmental event or energy change that affects an organism through any of its receptors Anything capable of evoking (bringing out) a response in an organism o Examples: Irritants, sights, sounds, heat, cold, smells, and other sensations; even people.
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