A Military Guide to Terrorism in the 21st Century.pdf - US Army TRADOC TRADOC G2 Handbook No 1 A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century

A Military Guide to Terrorism in the 21st Century.pdf - US...

This preview shows page 1 out of 182 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 182 pages?

Unformatted text preview: US Army TRADOC TRADOC G2 Handbook No. 1 A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century US Army Training and Doctrine Command TRADOC G2 TRADOC Intelligence Support Activity - Threats Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 15 August 2007 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. 1 Summary of Change U.S. Army TRADOC G2 Handbook No. 1 (Version 5.0) A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century Specifically, this handbook dated 15 August 2007 • Provides an information update since the DCSINT Handbook No. 1, A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century, publication dated 10 August 2006 (Version 4.0). • References the U.S. Department of State, Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, Country Reports on Terrorism 2006 dated April 2007. • References the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC), Reports on Terrorist Incidents - 2006, dated 30 April 2007. • Deletes Appendix A, Terrorist Threat to Combatant Commands. By country assessments are available in U.S. Department of State, Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, Country Reports on Terrorism 2006 dated April 2007. • Deletes Appendix C, Terrorist Operations and Tactics. These topics are covered in chapter 4 of the 2007 handbook. Emerging patterns and trends are addressed in chapter 5 of the 2007 handbook. • Deletes Appendix F, Weapons of Mass Destruction. See TRADOC G2 Handbook No.1.04. • Refers to updated 2007 Supplemental TRADOC G2 Handbook No.1.01, Terror Operations: Case Studies in Terror, dated 25 July 2007. • Refers to Supplemental DCSINT Handbook No. 1.02, Critical Infrastructure Threats and Terrorism, dated 10 August 2006. • Refers to Supplemental DCSINT Handbook No. 1.03, Suicide Bombing in the COE, dated 10 August 2006. • Refers to new 2007 Supplemental TRADOC G2 Handbook No. 1.04, Terrorism and WMD in the Contemporary Operational Environment, dated 20 August 2007. • Refers to For Official Use Only (FOUO) Supplemental DCSINT Handbook No. 1.05, A Military Primer to Terrorism in the Contemporary Operational Environment, dated 10 August 2006. • This 2007 Version 5.0 supersedes DCSINT G2 Handbook No. 1, A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century, publication dated 10 August 2006 (Version 4.0). A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century US Command U.S.Army ArmyTraining Trainingand and Doctrine Doctrine Command TRADOC G2Intelligence Deputy Chief of Staff for TRADOC Intelligence Support Activity (TRISA) – Threats TRADOC Intelligence Support Activity - Threats 15 August 2007 15 August 2007 COORD DRAFT Version 5.0 3 Page Intentionally Blank 4 A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century 15 August 2007 Contents Preface................................................................................................................................ v Introduction....................................................................................................................... 1 The Problem.................................................................................................................... 2 Purpose............................................................................................................................ 4 Scope of the Issue ........................................................................................................... 6 WOT and the Contemporary Operational Environment................................................. 8 Targeting Vulnerabilities ................................................................................................ 8 Approach to Understanding Terrorism ......................................................................... 10 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 12 Chapter 1 The Face of Terrroism Today .................................................................... 1-1 Section I: What is Terrorism........................................................................................ 1-2 Defining Terrorism .................................................................................................. 1-2 Vectors of Action..................................................................................................... 1-3 Section II: Objectives.................................................................................................. 1-4 Section III: Terrorism and Insurgency......................................................................... 1-5 Section IV: State Sponsored Terror ............................................................................. 1-9 Section V: Other Forms of Terrorism........................................................................ 1-11 Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 1-12 Chapter 2 Terrorist Motivations and Behaviors......................................................... 2-1 Section I: Goals............................................................................................................ 2-2 Operational Intent of Terrorism ............................................................................... 2-4 Section II: Motivation ................................................................................................. 2-5 Ideology Influences.................................................................................................. 2-6 Ideological Categories ............................................................................................. 2-7 Location or Geographic Categories ......................................................................... 2-9 Section III: Behavior.................................................................................................. 2-11 Individual Behaviors.............................................................................................. 2-11 Organizational Behavior ........................................................................................ 2-14 Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 2-16 Chapter 3 Terrorist Organizational Models ............................................................... 3-1 Section I: Organizational Commitment ....................................................................... 3-3 Levels of Commitment ............................................................................................ 3-3 i A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century 15 August 2007 Section II: Organizational Structure ............................................................................ 3-5 Cellular Foundation ................................................................................................. 3-5 Hierarchical Structure .............................................................................................. 3-6 Networked Structure ................................................................................................ 3-7 Types of Structure.................................................................................................... 3-8 Ideological Affiliation.............................................................................................. 3-9 Section III: Organizational Categories......................................................................... 3-9 Terrorist Affiliation.................................................................................................. 3-9 Support................................................................................................................... 3-11 Weapons and Equipment ....................................................................................... 3-13 Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 3-14 Chapter 4 Terrorist Targeting of U.S. Military Forces.............................................. 4-1 Section I: Operational Environments and U.S. Military Forces .................................. 4-2 Deployed Forces ...................................................................................................... 4-3 In-Transit Forces...................................................................................................... 4-3 Institutional Forces................................................................................................... 4-3 Section II: Circumstances and Influences.................................................................... 4-3 Reasons for Targeting .............................................................................................. 4-4 Section III: Terrorist Attack Threats to U.S. Forces.................................................. 4-13 General................................................................................................................... 4-13 Contemporary Setting ............................................................................................ 4-13 Forms of Terrorism .................................................................................................... 4-14 Arson...................................................................................................................... 4-15 Sabotage................................................................................................................. 4-15 Bombing................................................................................................................. 4-16 Kidnapping............................................................................................................. 4-18 Hostage Taking ...................................................................................................... 4-20 Hijack-Seizure........................................................................................................ 4-21 Raid or Ambush ..................................................................................................... 4-22 Assassination.......................................................................................................... 4-23 Aircraft Threats.......................................................................................................... 4-25 Maritime Threats........................................................................................................ 4-27 Suicide Tactics ........................................................................................................... 4-28 Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 4-30 Chapter 5 Terrorism of the Foreseebale Future......................................................... 5-1 Section I: Future Trends in Terrorism ......................................................................... 5-2 Section II: Assessing the Trends.................................................................................. 5-3 Section III: Enablers to Terror ................................................................................... 5-17 Conclusion ................................................................................................................. 5-21 ii A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century 15 August 2007 Appendix A Terrorist Planning Cycle ........................................................................ A-1 Phase I: Broad Target Selection.................................................................................. A-2 Phase II: Intelligence Gathering and Surveillance...................................................... A-2 Phase III: Specific Target Selection............................................................................ A-3 Phase IV: Pre-attack Surveillance and Planning......................................................... A-4 Phase V: Rehearsals.................................................................................................... A-4 Phase VI: Actions on the Objective ............................................................................ A-5 Phase VII: Escape and Exploitation............................................................................ A-5 Appendix B Firearms ................................................................................................... B-1 General........................................................................................................................ B-1 Handguns .................................................................................................................... B-2 Submachine Guns ....................................................................................................... B-6 Assault Rifles .............................................................................................................. B-9 Sniper Rifles.............................................................................................................. B-12 Shotguns.................................................................................................................... B-15 Appendix C Conventional Military Munitions .......................................................... C-1 General........................................................................................................................ C-1 Fragmentation Grenades ............................................................................................. C-1 Rocket Propelled Grenade .......................................................................................... C-3 Air Defense Weapons ................................................................................................. C-4 Bombs and Artillery.................................................................................................... C-5 Mines........................................................................................................................... C-8 Glossary ..............................................................................................................Glossary-1 Selected Bibliography .................................................................................Bibliography-1 iii A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century This Page Intentionally Blank iv 15 August 2007 A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century 15 August 2007 Preface A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century is a reference guide prepared under the direction of the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), TRADOC G2 as a capstone reference guide on terrorism. TRADOC G2 Handbook No. 1, A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century is prepared by the TRADOC Intelligence Support Activity (TRISA)-Threats. Understanding terrorism spans foreign and domestic threats of nation-states, rogue states with international or transnational agents, and other actors with specific strategies, tactics, and targets. This terrorism guide addresses foreign and domestic threats against the United States of America in a contemporary operational environment (COE). Purpose. This informational handbook supports institutional training, professional military education, and operational missions for U.S. military forces in the War on Terrorism (WOT). This document provides an introduction to the nature of terrorism and recognition of terrorist threats to U.S. military forces. A common situational awareness by U.S. military forces considers three principal venues for armed forces: forces that are deployed, forces that are in transit to or from an operational mission, and forces that are primarily installation or institution support. Compiled from open source materials, this handbook promotes a “Threats” perspective and enemy situational awareness of U.S. strategies and operations in combating terrorism. Neither a counterterrorism directive nor antiterrorism manual, this handbook complements but does not replace Army training and intelligence products on terrorism. Intended Audience. This handbook exists primarily for U.S. military forces; however, other applicable groups include interdepartmental, interagency, intergovernmental, civilian contractor, nongovernmental, private volunteer, and humanitarian relief organizations, and the general citizenry. Handbook Use. Study of contemporary terrorist motivations and behavior, terrorist goals and objectives, and knowledge of terrorist tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) improve training and readiness of U.S. military forces. This handbook will be updated as necessary to enhance a current and relevant resource. A selected bibliography presents citations for detailed study of specific terrorism topics. Unless stated otherwise, masculine nouns or pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. Proponent Statement. Headquarters, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) is the proponent for this publication. Periodic updates will accommodate emergent user requirements on terrorism. Send comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 directly to Director, U.S. Army TRADOC Intelligence Support Activity (TRISA)Threats, ATTN: ATIN-T, Threats Terrorism Team, Bldg 53, 700 Scott Avenue, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 66027-1323. This handbook is available at . and requires an Army Knowledge Online (AKO) login for access. v A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century This Page Intentionally Blank vi 15 August 2007 A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century 15 August 2007 Introduction Introduction Introduction Violent extremist networks and ideologies will continue to be a threat to the United States and our allies for many years. The ambition of these networks to acquire chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons is real, as is their desire to launch more attacks on our country and on our interests around the world. Honorable Robert Gates U.S. Secretary of Defense May 2007 A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century is a capstone reference guide that describes terrorism1 and highlights the nature of terrorism present in a full spectrum contemporary operational environment (COE),2 and the likely impacts on U.S. military operations. Figure 1. Vectors of Domestic and Foreign Terrorism Despite the consistent menace of terrorism, threats can be misunderstood and frequently confused due to widely divergent views on how to define terrorism. Terrorism as discussed in this handbook centers on known principal terrorist “Threats” to the United States of America. The United States confronts terrorism in daily circumstances, both foreign and domestic, and adapts the security environment and force protection against 1 Joint Publication 1-02. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military Terms and Associated Terms, 12 April 2001, as amended through 13 June 2007. See also, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, TRADOC G2, TRADOC Intelligence Support Activity (TRISA) White Paper, The Contemporary Operational Environment, July 2007. 2 U.S. Army Field Manual FM 7-100, Opposing Force Doctrinal Framework and Strategy, May 2003, iv to xvi. 1 A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century 15 August 2007 terrorism. The most significant U.S. concerns are terrorist organizations with demonstrated global reach capabilities and those terrorist organizations that seek to acquire and use weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The Problem What is the “Threat” of terrorism? How does terrorism impact on U.S. military forces in the conduct of operations and institutional support? What measures exist to minimize terrorist action in the contemporary operational environment? Terrorism The calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governm...
View Full Document

  • Fall '15
  • ADAMSMITH
  • U.S. military forces

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture