Biology Exam 1 Study guide.docx

Biology Exam 1 Study guide.docx - Chapter 1 Biology Study...

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Chapter 1 Biology Study Guide Levels of Biological Organization Biosphere- consists of all life on earth and all the places where life exists: most regions of land, most bodies of water, the atmosphere to an altitude of several kilometers, and even sediment far below the ocean floor. Ecosystems- consists of all the living things in a particular area, along with all the nonliving components of the environment with which life interacts, such as soil, water, atmospheric gases, and light. Communities- the array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem Population- consists of all the individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specific area. Organisms- individual living things Difference between ecosystem and community An ecosystem could be a biome such as a desert or a tundra. A community is a group of different species that are close enough to interact with each other. Characteristic action of living systems Order- Evolutionary adaptation- Regulation- Energy processing- Growth and development- Response to environment- Example of emergent property Emergent properties- are due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases. For example, although photosynthesis occurs in an intact chloroplast, it will not take place in a disorganized test tube mixture of chlorophyll and other chloroplast molecules. Genetic information stored within cells Within cells, structures called chromosomes that contain genetic material in the form of DNA. Gene expression is an essential process a cell must carry out before it is able to transmit genetic information to its daughter cells. Definitions Transcription- using the information in the sequence of DNA nucleotides, the cell makes a specific RNA molecule called mRNA. Translation- the cell translates the information in the sequence of mRNA nucleotides to make a protein, a series of linked amino acids. Gene expression for a protein coding gene RNA also regulates the functioning of protein-coding genes. Genes specify all of this RNA as well, and their production is also referred to as gene expression. By carrying the instructions for making proteins and RNAs and by replicating with each cell division, DNA ensures faithful inheritance of genetic information from generation to generation.
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Energy and Matter The input of energy is primarily from the sun, and the transformation of energy from one form to another make life possible. When a plant’s leaves absorb sunlight, molecules within the leaves convert the energy of sunlight to the chemical energy of food, such as sugars, in the process of photosynthesis. The chemical energy in the food molecules is then passed along by plants and other photosynthetic organisms to consumers.
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