Dietary Carbohydrates

Dietary Carbohydrates - 01/30/08 Dietary Carbohydrates I....

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01/30/08 Dietary Carbohydrates I. What are Carbohydrates? Carbohydrates - Are made from photosynthesis to synthesize glucose in plants - Carbohydrate metabolism centered on providing and using energy - Organic compounds containing carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) - Four types Sugars Fiber Starches Gums - Major function, energy yielding nutrient = 4 Kcal/g Simple Carbohydrates (Sugars) - Monosaccharide Major form of diet and in blood Dairy products Fruit, honey, corn syrup
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- Disaccharide Glucose-glucose: found in grains and malt Glucose-fructose: table sugar, fruit, honey, corn syrup Glucose-galactose: dairy products Complex Carbohydrates - Polysaccharide Glycogen o Storage form of carbohydrate in animals o Contains only glucose o Branched structure allows to break down easily by glucagon
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o Stored in muscles and liver o 200-500 grams o Can be temporarily increased by carbohydrate loading Starches o Storage form of carbohydrate in plants o Amylose (long straight chains) o Amylopectin (branched chains) o Contain only glucose o Sources: oat bran, corn, rice, wheat, beans, lentils, potatoes, yam, cassava II. Carbohydrates in Diet Overview - Enzymes attached to villi in small intestine - Directly to liver through circulation - Galactose + Fructose Glucose - Cells throughout the body are reached Digestion of Disaccharides in Villi of Small Intestine - Sucrose Sucrase Glucose + Fructose - Lactose Lactase Glucose + Galactose - Maltose Maltase
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2008 for the course NUSC 160 taught by Professor Sui-caldera during the Spring '08 term at UConn.

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Dietary Carbohydrates - 01/30/08 Dietary Carbohydrates I....

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