EESA10 Review Notes Week 1: Introduction - What is the Environment? •Environment is everything that affects a living organism •Includes the study of both the direct and the indirect pathological(病理学) effects of various: - Chemical - Biological - Physical (only man-made) (e.g. Housing, urban development, land) - Types of Hazard: •Chemical Hazards: chemicals in air, water, soil and food •Biological Hazards: bacteria(䷅菌), viruses(病毒), parasites(寄生虫), allergens(过敏原) •Physical Hazards: Radiation, fires, tornados, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are NOT environmental health hazard. (They are natural disasters) •Social or Behavioral Hazards: Poor diet, smoking, drugs, drinking, poverty, are NOT environmental health hazards. (But the chemicals in a tobacco smoke are!) (Second hand smoke is environmental hazards) •Genetic Traits(基因特质): Health risks associated with the chromosomal defect are NOT environmental health hazards. - Environmental Health •The declining health of other organisms is the clearest indicator of environmental threats to human health. •Environmental factors are responsible for 25% of all preventable diseases. •In developing countries, diarrhea and respiratory infections are heading the list. Week 2: Airborne Hazards - Case Study 1: London Smog, 1952 - landmark of air pollution - The smog was the result of coal burning - produced lots of smoke and SO2(sulphur dioxide) - The peak in the number of deaths coincided with the peak in both smoke and sulphur dioxide pollution levels. - Case study 2: Indonesian Fires, 1997 - Tropical climate - Cut trees and burn them and after do agriculture - The fire will end by Monsoon, but that Ǉear MoŶsooŶ didŶ͛t Đoŵe iŶ tiŵe.- Two types of Airborne Hazards: - Outdoor air pollution - Indoor air pollution find more resources at oneclass.comfind more resources at oneclass.com
- Outdoor air pollution •Sources of outdoor: -Primary air pollution: (e.g. CO2, CO(不充分燃烧), SO2) (直接释放)-Secondary air pollution: Ozone(⋌映后的O3,在高空空是保护层,廐地面是污染染物)•Air pollution from burning Fossil Fuels Sources of Pollutants Vehicles (gasolines, diesel) Electric Power plants (coal, oil) Heating Buildings(Oil, natural gas) Manufacturing (Coal, oil, natural gas) Pollutant Basic pollutants of the combustion process: Carbon dioxide(CO2) ✓✓✓✓Carbon monoxide(CO) ✓Nitrous Oxide(N2O) Nitrogen dioxide(NO2) Nitric dioxide(NO) ✓✓Sulfur dioxide(SO2) ✓(some) Particular Matter(PM) ✓✓✓✓Other pollutants liberated by combustion: Mercury Hg (from coal) ✓(some) Lead Pb (from gasoline) ✓Volatile organic compounds VOC (from gasoline) ✓- Health Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution 1. Asthma (哮喘) •Particulates and SO2 can irritate bronchial passages leading to severe difficulties in breathing. (ℹ激支气管通道) •From 1983-1993, prevalence in the US increased 34% •The incidence among a child in Australia was 1 in 5, double the rate in less than 20 years.