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Immigrant America A Portrait Fourth Edition Revised, Updated, and Expanded Alejandro Portes and Rubén G. Rumbaut University of California Press
Immigrant America
Immigrant America A Portrait Fourth Edition Revised, Updated, and Expanded Alejandro Portes and Rubén G. Rumbaut University of California Press
University of California Press, one of the most distin- guished university presses in the United States, enriches lives around the world by advancing scholarship in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Its activities are supported by the UC Press Foundation and by philanthropic contributions from individuals and institutions. For more information, visit . University of California Press Oakland, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England © 2014 by The Regents of the University of California Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Portes, Alejandro, 1944– author. Immigrant America : a portrait / Alejandro Portes and Rubén G. Rumbaut. — Fourth edition, revised, updated, and expanded. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn 978-0-520-27402-0 (pbk. : alk. paper) isbn 978-0-520-95915-6 (ebook) 1. Immigrants—United States—History. 2. United States—Emigration and immigration—History. 3. Americanization—History. I. Rumbaut, Rubén G., author. II. Title. jv6450.p67 2014 304.8’73—dc23 2014018276 Manufactured in the United States of America 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (R 2002) ( Permanence of Paper ).
To Patricia and Irene
List of Illustrations ix List of Tables xiii Preface to the Fourth Edition xvii Preface to the Third Edition xxi Preface to the Second Edition xxv Preface to the First Edition xxvii Acknowledgments for the Fourth Edition xxxi Acknowledgments for the Third Edition xxxiii Acknowledgments for the Second Edition xxxvii Acknowledgments for the First Edition xxxix 1. The Three Phases of U.S.-Bound Immigration 1 2. Theoretical Overview 48 3. Moving: Patterns of Immigrant Settlement and Spatial Mobility 80 4. Making It in America: Education, Occupation, and Entrepreneurship 112 5. From Immigrants to Ethnics: Identity, Citizenship, and Political Participation 161 Contents
6. Language: Diversity and Resilience 214 7. Growing Up American: The New Second Generation 258 8. Religion: The Enduring Presence 306 9. Conclusion: Immigration and Public Policy 371 Notes 395 References 419 Index 475
ix Plates follow pages 148 and 348 1. Evolution of the foreign-born population of the United States / 25 2. Changing labor markets / 28 3. Deportations from the United States, 1965–2009 / 33 4. The foreign-born population in the United States by county, 2000 / 88 5. The foreign-born in the United States as a percentage of total county population, 2000 / 89 6. States and metropolitan areas of immigrant concentration, 2010 / 90 7. Concentration and diversification, 2010 / 91 8. Annual incomes by nationality and different human capital and gender profiles / 146 9. Monthly earnings by nationality and different human capital and gender profiles / 147 10.

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